ADL warns of rising extremism even during Biden presidency
A representative of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) has warned of a rising trend of extremism and hate in the United States (US) and across the globe in spite of the incoming US administration’s focus on unity.
“We monitor chat rooms and listen to extremist groups. We don’t them see stepping back, if anything, they are leaning in,” said Dr Sharon Nazarian, the senior vice-president of international affairs for the ADL. Nazarian, an Iranian-born American social activist, academic, and philanthropist, was speaking on a webinar hosted by the Cape South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD).
“The US election campaign was bitter and divisive. It truly felt like a global election and a pivotal moment for the global community,” she said. The ADL’s assessment is that it was a clear win for the Biden/Harris ticket, and that a major task of their administration will be combating extremism.
The ADL was established 107 years ago with two clear missions, she said, namely to fight against antisemitism and defamation of the Jewish people, and for just and fair treatment for all. This work continues today through its 25 offices across the US and in working with Jewish communities and minorities worldwide.
“Antisemitism is a concern in the US and internationally,” said Nazarian, pointing out that President-elect Joe Biden had stated that he chose to run for president after the horror of the white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 2017. “Fighting hate and extremism and for racial justice was a prime issue of his campaign, and we hope he will continue to pay close attention to it as he forms a government,” she said.
“During the campaign, numerous examples of antisemitism and extremism seeped in. For example, [President Donald] Trump telling the white supremacist group, Proud Boys, to ‘stand down and stand by’ was very impactful. We monitor sites of extremist groups, and their reaction to that phrase was that they saw it as a vote of confidence. It energised them, as if the president was messaging that he was aligned with them,” said Nazarian.
“Then, just recently, former Republican speaker of the house, Newt Gingrich, pushed a conspiracy theory that Jewish billionaire George Soros helped to finance and ‘steal’ the 2020 election for Biden. Spreading such conspiracy theories enables and emboldens extremist groups. They feel their job is only just beginning.”
She noted that a specific extremist group that came to prominence in this election cycle was QAnon, an online movement peddling conspiracy theories that has deeply antisemitic roots.
“It started on the fringes and is now mainstream, seeing Trump as its leader.” This group has footprints in Germany and the United Kingdom, and the ADL is “monitoring the internationalisation and export of American extremist ideology to the world”, said Nazarian. “Hate no longer knows any borders. These groups use every means available to them to connect, co-ordinate, and partner with likeminded groups.
“The internationalisation of extremist ideology is a global threat to all of us,” she said. “We no longer have the luxury of only worrying about groups in our own country. They’re continuing to collaborate, mimic, and livestream attacks. Their writing becomes a manifesto and inspiration to others. We saw this in Christchurch, Charlottesville, and Pittsburgh.”
As most people know, “The tool that has enabled extremist groups to amplify their hateful message is social media. The ADL is at the forefront of working with social media companies. We established our Center for Technology and Society in Silicon Valley five years ago,” said Nazarian.
“Being on the ground, we felt we needed to work together with all major social media companies and come up with solutions to combat hate online. We looked at machine learning, artificial intelligence, code design, and engineering. But we reached a point in 2020 that we felt ‘enough is enough’ and the need to change our posture into a much more aggressive, offensive posture. This was because we realised that after almost a decade of advocacy, we didn’t see enough results.”
In 2020, the ADL started its first campaign targeting Facebook called “stop hate for profit”.
“We did an advertising pause, asking more than 1 000 companies and corporations to hold off from purchasing advertisements from Facebook for one month. The goal was to say that algorithms that push extremist groups and ads that include extremist language and ideology can no longer continue,” she said. “Just because there is a first amendment, doesn’t mean that they have to include hateful rhetoric and language on their site. They are private entities, and just like any sector of economy, safety measures are expected for the protection of citizens. So they too need to put safety measures in place so people aren’t exposed to or ‘fed’ extremist ideology.”
The campaign was successful, and “we saw it hit their bottom line”. It was a wake-up call to other social media companies who took notice, and soon after, Facebook banned Holocaust denial from its site. However, “there is still so much work to do”.
Regarding hate or extremism on the left, Nazarian said that “the extremism we monitor at the ADL comes from all sides. We go wherever we see it. Since 9/11, this has mostly shifted to white supremacists. We have found that threats of acts of violence emanate mostly from right-wing extremist groups.”
She said the ADL’s assessment of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement was that it is “a movement of social justice”. The ADL monitors antisemitism on the left closely, and there are examples of antisemitism or rhetoric and actions “crossing a line” into anti-Israel and antisemitic language. “However, regarding BLM as a whole … antisemitism is minor and secondary to its goal. We try not to compare, but the bottom line is that the ADL sees physical threats and violence primarily from right-wing groups more than any other sector.” The antisemitism that manifested in the Labour Party under Jeremy Corbyn was also a major concern.
Nazarian said that the COVID-19 pandemic had exacerbated the chance of Jews and Israel being blamed for being “behind the virus”, and being made scapegoats for the economic mayhem it has unleashed.
Asked if Biden’s message of unity could end divisions in the US, Nazarian said, “No. We know that over seven million Americans voted for Trump, and extremist groups and their views of what America should look like are still there. If anything, they are emboldened, and will continue their efforts on the streets, in communities, and everyday life to say that ‘we still feel our ideology is the right one’. Their fear of being ‘replaced’ by minority communities and loss of power will only get stronger and become more mainstream.”
She and Cape SAJBD Director Stuart Diamond said that every individual can and must play a role in combating hate wherever they find it.
World news in brief
Antwerp mayor warns rule flouting triggers antisemitism
The mayor of Antwerp, a city in Belgium where about 15 000 haredi Orthodox Jews live, warned that their failure to comply with COVID-19 measures has triggered some antisemitism, and it could turn into a wave.
“In the Jewish community, not everyone realises this, they have their own logic, but the backlash of public opinion that I see in my inbox, it’s terrible,” Bart De Wever, a right-wing politician who has enjoyed good relations with his city’s Jewish community, told the ATV station on Sunday, 24 January. “If we really want to move towards a wave of antisemitism, this is the way to go.”
His statement followed the two-week shutdown of a Belz synagogue by the Hasidic sect’s leaders in Antwerp. Police had determined that the shul on Van Spangen Street was twice in violation of emergency measures that forbid group prayer but allow individual worship.
Antwerp police have tolerated minyans, but have intervened when they were exceeded.
Legislators criticise Israel for not vaccinating Palestinians
Joaquin Castro, a top foreign policy Democrat in the United States House of Representatives, has joined a handful of other Democrats in criticising Israel for not supplying Palestinians with the coronavirus vaccine.
“I commend Israel for leading the world on vaccinating its people, but I’m disappointed and concerned by its government’s exclusion of Palestinians living under Israeli occupation from these vaccination efforts, despite making COVID-19 vaccines available to Israeli settlers in the West Bank,” Castrol, of Texas, told Ha’aretz this week.
A number of other Democrats, including Rashida Tlaib of Michigan, Jamaal Bowman of New York, and Marie Newman of Illinois have also criticised Israel for excluding the Palestinians.
Israel says it isn’t required to vaccinate West Bank Palestinians under international law and prior agreements with the Palestinians.
Israeli museum accused of smuggling artifacts out of Warsaw
The City of Warsaw has accused an Israeli Holocaust museum of smuggling Jewish prayer artifacts out of Poland that the museum said were found inside an old bunker in the Polish capital.
The Shem Olam museum near Hadera announced this week that it had obtained 10 sets of tefillin found by construction workers in Warsaw near the entrance to a bunker dug by Jewish fighters in preparation for the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
The City of Warsaw has no knowledge of the find, said spokesperson Karolina Gałecka. If Shem Olam was telling the truth about what it obtained and where, “a crime has occurred” because Poland requires anyone who finds archaeological items to report their discovery to the authorities.
Rabbi Avraham Krieger, Shem Olam’s director, said Judaica artifacts, including from the Warsaw Ghetto, are widely available for sale in Polish antique stores and online.
Leifer finally extradited to Australia
Malka Leifer has boarded a plane from Israel en route to Australia where she faces 74 charges of child sexual abuse.
Leifer fled to Israel from Australia in 2008 amid allegations that she had sexually abused students when she was the principal at the Adass Yisroel School in Melbourne. In 2014, Australia filed a formal extradition request, but Israeli authorities deemed her unstable and unfit for extradition.
After an investigation showed she was living a normal life, she was rearrested in 2018, and last year, an Israeli panel cleared her for extradition.
Leifer’s departure from Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport came shortly before the country was due to ground all flights for at least a week to curb the spread of COVID-19.
Israelis torch bus in protest against COVID-19 restrictions
A mob of Orthodox Jews torched a bus in Israel after beating the bus driver amid ongoing riots protesting the country’s COVID-19 restrictions.
Police officers in other cities were also injured during riots in Orthodox neighbourhoods, where COVID-19 rates have spiked but residents object to lockdown restrictions.
The bus burning in Bnei Brak on Sunday, 24 January, a largely haredi or ultra-Orthodox city near Tel Aviv, came days after rioters there injured seven police officers in clashes last week. Police have sought to close haredi schools and other institutions, which has sparked a violent backlash from protesters.
Index cards of Dutch Holocaust victims to be made public
(JTA) Sonja Levy was a positive person who made an excellent first impression and whose important position exempted her from deportation, according to the personal card that the Jewish Council of Amsterdam made for her during the Nazi occupation.
But the accolades on the card weren’t enough to save Levy, a kindergarten teacher who was in her early 20s when the Germans invaded.
Like more than 100 000 Dutch Jews, she was eventually put on a train to the death camps in occupied Poland, and murdered there in a gas chamber.
On Monday, the ownership of her personal card – it turned out to be her first epitaph – was handed over to the main museum of the community to which she belonged.
Ahead of International Holocaust Remembrance Day on Wednesday, 27 January, the Netherlands branch of the Red Cross has transferred to the Jewish Cultural Quarter of Amsterdam ownership of more than 140 000 personal cards of Dutch Jews that are to be displayed to the public for the first time. The Jewish Cultural Quarter is an umbrella organisation of several Jewish institutions including the National Holocaust Museum of the Netherlands.
The entire index of the Jewish Council of Amsterdam, a body that the Nazis set up to have Jews oversee preparations for the extermination of their own minority throughout the Netherlands, is among the most comprehensive and best-kept registries of its kind anywhere in Europe.
It’s unusual in that it includes references to status and personal traits, reflecting how this registry, unlike most other Nazi lists, was made by for Jews by Jews.
In more than 75% of the cards, the Red Cross after World War II added the date of deportation in red ink, a rare tangible reminder of how in the Netherlands, the Nazis achieved their highest death rate anywhere in occupied Western Europe. Of about 110 000 Jews deported, only a few thousand survived.
The Red Cross has transferred its entire wartime archives to the Dutch National Archives, except for the Jewish Council’s index card archive. On Monday, the Red Cross transferred ownership of the archive to the National Holocaust Museum, which is undergoing renovations. The index will go on display next year when the museum reopens, the Red Cross said.
The index “is of great value not only as an archive, but also as a museum monument and a tangible reminder of the Holocaust”, the Red Cross wrote.
The cards were digitised in 2012, and made available for viewing online upon request for a name or other identifying details. But browsing the cards hasn’t been possible. The National Holocaust Museum of the Netherlands is now designing the cards’ display ahead of the reopening, but they will be visible for all to see, according to Emile Schrijver, the director of the Jewish Cultural Quarter.
Bernie Sanders has his most viral week ever
(JTA) Bernie Sanders was everywhere on James Corden’s late night show set on Thursday, 21 January.
Life-sized cardboard cut-outs of the Jewish senator in his now famous inauguration ceremony pose – hands and legs crossed, slightly crumpled in his chair, wearing a pair of fawned-over mittens – sat behind a synthesiser next to the house band, behind the bar for guests, and scattered throughout the practically non-existent audience.
“Speaking of breakout stars of the inauguration, we have another one with us in the studio,” Corden said, barely holding in his laughter.
It was a fitting indication of just how ubiquitous Sanders’ image was in pop culture and for the eyeballs of social media this week. No regular Instagram or Twitter user could have scrolled through their feeds since the presidential inauguration on Wednesday, 20 January, without seeing the mittened Sanders, usually in meme form, with humorous accompanying text, often comparing him to cranky relatives and the like.
Many employed Jewish humour along the way.
Then came the photoshop phenomenon. Social media users began splicing the Sanders’ silhouette into other photos of people and places all over the world, even into screen shots from movies and TV shows.
Our sister site Alma, not content with one long slideshow of Bernie memes on Instagram, posted three sets of Bernie photoshopped into everything from Fiddler on the Roof to When Harry Met Sally, to a Haim music video.
The meme deluge became so unrelenting, some were fatigued with the image by Friday.
An entire market of merchandise inspired by the image has quickly sprouted. The National Museum of Jewish History in Philadelphia is hawking “bundled up Bernie mugs” and more. Designers are incorporating it into their work on Etsy. Sanders’ own online store is now selling a sweatshirt with the image, and donating all of the proceeds to Meals on Wheels Vermont. Even the progressive magazine Jewish Currents has its own “Bernie merch”.
“The mug for a bris, a shiva, a long line at Zabar’s, a protracted and infuriating call with your insurance provider. This isn’t an endorsement of anything other than sitting like this,” the magazine tweeted.
As with most random internet phenomena, there’s no firm answer as to why the image went viral. Sanders has been a social media star before, most notably for the memes based on his December 2019 presidential campaign advert, in which the progressive legislator asks his supporters “once again” for donations.
But this photo seemed to capture the essence of Sanders’ public persona as the nation’s grumpy grandfather – and a Jewish one at that, with Ashkenazi features and an unmistakable Brooklyn accent. His homemade wool mittens, a symbol of Sanders’ Vermont style and his repudiation of anything fancy, also fit just a little too perfectly with a senator known for his rants about income inequality. (The gloves have a heartwarming backstory involving a public-school teacher that only helped fuel the fire.)
The intensity of the political moment, charged into a new gear after the deadly insurrection at the Capitol – especially for Jews, newly frightened by the display of antisemitism at the right-wing riot – probably had something to do with it too. The country, one could argue, was primed for a feel-good meme sensation. As a Refinery29 writer put it, the inauguration was, for the majority of liberal-leaning America, a “sigh of relief”.
Alma’s Emily Burack wrote, “As an Ashkenazi Jew with grandparents from Brooklyn, it’s hard not to feel a kindred spirit in Bernie. And in a year – well, in the past four years, really – when we’ve dealt with a rise in antisemitism, the worst antisemitic attack in American history, and an emboldened faction of white supremacists, the undeniable grumpy Jewishness of Bernie offers a real sense of catharsis.”
Writer Amanda Silberling tweeted that the memes “offered American Jews a chance to heal from the rampant antisemitism in the news cycle”.
A large part of Sanders’ appeal to his progressive fans has always been his stubborn focus on substantive policy debate and his impatience with the fluff of pop culture. As Refinery29 continued, the cross-legged Sanders photo captured that ethic perfectly.
“He has things to do and places to be. His demeanour is unsentimental, unmoved, and largely unbothered,” Michelle Santiago Cortes wrote.
Sanders’ comic response to the phenomenon was a TikTok video that expressed just that. Its caption, “Fashion? Let’s get to work.” The video showed a clip of him responding to a question about the photo on a news show and what he had “in mind” at the time of the shot.
“Two thousand dollars per adult. That’s what the Senate has got to do,” he replies, referring to the debate over how much money the next COVID-19 stimulus relief should include.
But Sanders eventually did have some sense of humour about the whole thing. The timing of the shot, taken as the country watched Joe Biden become president, prompted inevitable musings as to whether Bernie truly was cranky about the event, especially after coming so close to winning the Democratic nomination last year. Sanders, a long-time friend of Biden’s, dispelled those thoughts in an appearance on Late Night With Seth Meyers on Thursday night.
“I was just sitting there, trying to keep warm, paying attention to what’s going on,” he said to Meyers with a smile.
As the Biden era begins without the prospect of a President Sanders and subsequently no pressing need for Larry David to portray Sanders on Saturday Night Live, could this be the end of Sanders’ pop culture stardom?
As one Twitter user wrote, “If @nbcsnl doesn’t have Larry David dressed as @SenSanders in the background of every skit this weekend … then I don’t want it.”
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