Secret meeting with Sudan a significant move for Israel
As Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu flew into Uganda for a 24-hour whirlwind trip on Monday, the outcome was expected to be that the two states would establish embassies, with Uganda possibly indicating that its embassy could be in Jerusalem. But there was an unexpected diplomatic achievement with a different country, namely formalised ties with the Arab African state of Sudan.
“The news of the meeting between Netanyahu and Sudan’s leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the chairperson of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, drew a muted response in Sudan, where the government was not informed in advance that it would be taking place. The meeting was held in secret, with the IDF [Israel Defense Forces] censoring early reports of it in Israel and only a small number of Sudanese officials knowing of it in advance. After the meeting, the prime minister’s office announced that Israel and Sudan would work towards normalisation,” reported the Jerusalem Post’s Lahav Harkov.
The United Arab Emirates apparently organised the meeting between Netanyahu and al-Burhan. It took place in Entebbe, Uganda.
Israeli officials said both countries were “setting up teams to work on how to advance co-operation between the countries and establish diplomatic relations”.
“If indeed ties are established it will be a big boon for Israel and maybe an electoral boost for Netanyahu,” said Steven Gruzd, foreign policy analyst at the South African Institute of International Affairs. “It’s his fourth visit to Africa in the past two years, and is part of Israel’s re-engagement with the continent.
“Israel has strong ties with South Sudan that seceded in 2011, so it will be a diplomatic achievement to also establish full relations with Khartoum. Israel found an opening after [former leader Omar al] Bashir was toppled, and Sudan could see this as a way to improve ties with the United States,” he said.
“This seems to follow a larger pattern of engagement by a number of countries who historically have not had a relationship with Israel,” said J. Brooks Spector, the associate editor at Daily Maverick. “In part, this could be because the salience [relevance] of Palestinian issues is decreasing rather than increasing. Times and circumstances may be different, and even if Sudan was coming from a place of conflict before, both nations are accommodating this new reality.”
“That meeting that took place between Netanyahu and al-Burhan was highly controversial within Sudan,” said political analyst Daniel Silke. “I don’t think there was buy-in across the board amongst all the various political groupings there, which are very complicated. I don’t see this as being specifically a move to be closer to Israel. It certainly seems to be an attempt by Sudan to present a more pragmatic view to the outside world, particularly to the US, because Sudan still does labour under substantial economic sanctions. The US regards Sudan as a purveyor of state terror. I think by being a little more pragmatic and friendly towards a key US ally like Israel, Sudan is hoping to ingratiate herself to some degree with the US and the Trump administration. So I think it’s more of a conduit to the US than anything substantial on Mid-East policy and a realignment.”
Others believe it to be highly significant. Israel’s ambassador to the United Kingdom, Mark Regev, tweeted, “Fifty three years ago, the Arab League declared from Sudan, ‘No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiation with Israel’. Fifty three years on, Israeli and Sudanese leaders meet. Our growing ties with the Arab world prove the obsolescence of anti-Israel rejectionism.”
Barak Ravid, a senior correspondent on Israel’s Channel 13, tweeted, “Why it matters: today’s meeting follows years of hostility from Sudan toward Israel, and signals a diplomatic opening under the joint civilian-military government that replaced long-time dictator Omar al-Bashir last year. Sudanese soldiers fought against Israel in the 1948 and 1967 wars. The country also used to host Hamas headquarters, and was used by Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Corps as a logistical hub for arms smuggling to Gaza.”
Said Gregg Carlstrom, Middle Eastern correspondent for the Economist, “Between this and the pre-2019 Sudan diplomacy, Arab states are getting some very strong signals that America is willing to upend decades of policy in exchange for normalisation with Israel.”
Yaakov Katz, the Jerusalem Post’s editor in chief, said, “A meeting between Netanyahu and the leader of Sudan is far from being an election gimmick. Moving Sudan, an Arab country, out of Iran’s orbit into the West is dramatic for Israel and the region. Just a few years ago, Israel was regularly tracking Iranian arms crossing Sudan to Gaza.”
Jonathan Schanzer, the senior vice-president of research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, argued, “Bibi did not draw Sudan out of Iran’s orbit. Saudi did that a few years back. Sudan is now a junior player/pawn in the Saudi-led alliance. Sudan’s outreach to Israel is basically a Saudi trial balloon. That doesn’t make this less meaningful. Perhaps gives it more significance. I’d also add that Sudan wants sanctions lifted. After years of supporting Hamas and Iran, this is a clear sign that Khartoum has turned a corner.”
There could be practical results to the meeting too. “An Israeli source said the Sudan-Israel thaw will allow Israeli planes to overfly the African country, shortening routes to Africa’s south and South America,” tweeted Ha’aretz English edition editor Avi Scharf. Netanyahu’s son, Yair, added, “Interesting fact: if there was peace with Sudan, we could technically drive on a road trip from here [Israel] to Cape Town.”
Meanwhile, the meeting being held in Uganda was significant. “Netanyahu landed on Monday at Entebbe International Airport. His El Al plane landed only several metres from the very terminal where the prime minister’s brother, Yonatan, was killed during a daring raid to liberate Jewish hostages, 43 years ago,” reported the Times of Israel’s Raphael Ahren. “Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni told Netanyahu that he would look into the possibility of opening an embassy in Jerusalem. Uganda doesn’t have an embassy in Israel, and the Israeli ambassador in neighbouring Kenya also serves as ambassador to Kampala.”
Closer ties between Zim and Israel rattles ANC
Zimbabwe and Israel have had full diplomatic relations since 1993, but further overtures by our northern neighbour to the Jewish state could cause conflict with South Africa, particularly certain factions in the African National Congress (ANC).
According to an article by Carien du Plessis published on News24 on Wednesday, 3 February, “Zimbabwe has been seeking closer ties with Israel in the hope of securing more investment and doing away with sanctions. This move has caused unease within the ANC, which has a pro-Palestinian stance, although it’s unlikely the party will act on it.
“The ruling party [in Zimbabwe], ZANU-PF, has historically positioned itself as pro-Palestinian, but Zimbabwean President Emmerson Mnangagwa’s latest move closer to Israel represents a change in policy direction,” Du Plessis writes.
She reports that although the head of the ANC committee on international relations, Lindiwe Zulu, said that, “We cannot interfere with the sovereign decisions of the governing party of any other government”, there have been divisions within ZANU-PF and within the ANC about the Israel matter.
“A pro-Palestine lobby within the ANC wants South Africa’s governing party to take a more hardline approach to its Zimbabwean counterpart, while the pragmatists prefer not to push this issue for diplomatic reasons,” Du Plessis says.
Darren Bergman, the shadow minister for international relations and cooperation and a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum Human Rights Committee, didn’t mince his words about South Africa’s response.
“The people of Zimbabwe are suffering. The internal affairs of Zimbabwe couldn’t get South Africa to act, the situation in Zimbabwe couldn’t get South Africa to act, but the relationship with Israel gets South Africa to act,” he said.
“This is a sinister situation that must make the SADC and African Union [AU] question what exactly South Africa’s situation is with regard to the Middle East,” Bergman said.
“It’s one thing to have an opinion and a position, but it’s another to keep a hard-pressed, almost spiteful stance at all times that can actually harm and injure the people and the continent. To this I would say that South Africa should show diplomatic constraint, and hold back.”
One of Mnangagwa’s recent moves to improve relations with Israel is the appointment last year of Israeli national Ronny Levi Musan as honorary consul of Zimbabwe to Israel.
The Afro-Middle East Centre reported in October 2020 that, “Musan has set plans into motion for Mnangagwa’s official visit to Israel. His activities in Zimbabwe include collaboration with Pentecostal churches to push for Christian support for Israel. Zimbabwe’s honorary consul is also pushing for Israeli businesses to invest in Zimbabwe’s agricultural sector, and he recently announced the intention to open an Israeli academy of agriculture in Zimbabwe. On the diplomatic front, Israel hopes that Mnangagwa will follow the example of his Malawian counterpart, Lazarus Chakwera, who announced plans to open an embassy in Jerusalem.”
Musan told the SA Jewish Report he had worked in Africa for the past 20 years to strengthen links between churches and the Holy Land. “About five years ago, I was invited to visit Zimbabwe which lasted about two weeks. I tried to do everything possible to connect Zimbabwe to Israel on a practical level. After the first visit, I visited Zimbabwe several more times, and met a number of ministers and church leaders, and just fell in love with the place.
“From there, it continued through my activities with the Israeli foreign ministry and the foreign ministry in Zimbabwe to promote diplomatic relations between the countries.” He was eventually appointed to this role.
“My main responsibility is to do everything possible in every field to bring knowledge and support from Israel to Zimbabwe, and vice versa. The main issue is technology in the field of agriculture, education, and innovation. These are the cornerstones that will return the crown to Zimbabwe as the ‘grain basket of Africa’.”
Local political analyst Daniel Silke says that Zimbabwe’s overtures to Israel “could well be an attempt by Zimbabwe to follow the Sudan example, in which currying favour with the United States via the channel of restoring relations with Israel allows the country to receive assistance and perhaps even escape some of the worst sanctions. But, of course, [former US] President Donald Trump is no longer in the White House. Whether this will have any traction with Joe Biden, who I think will be a lot more critical of the Zimbabwean regime, remains to be seen.”
In terms of the impact it could have on South African-Israel relations, Silke says, “Many other African countries are forging their own path in terms of relations with Israel. For President [Cyril] Ramaphosa, it’s a difficult balancing act given the demands from within his own party. But I don’t think South Africa has any leg to stand on in terms of interference with any country which wishes to forge some sort of close relationship with the Jewish state. As head of the AU, Ramaphosa is again in a tough position because of the changing dynamics across Africa, but I don’t think it’s an issue that will really get much attention.”
Rowan Polovin, the chairperson of the South African Zionist Federation, says, “We see this as a positive development, particularly for Southern Africa, which is part of the momentum that is being created by the Abraham Accords.
“Northern Africa has been very much part of the momentum. In the southern region, Malawi, which is diplomatically and geographically close to South Africa, has signalled its intention to open an embassy in Israel. If all this has an impact on South Africa’s neighbours, then South Africa will see the benefits. It’s very hard to ignore the importance of building ties with Israel, which has so many solutions for African issues, particularly water, electricity, agriculture, and security. Notwithstanding the noise that the ANC might make, ultimately it’s positive.”
Just how successful is Israel’s vaccine push?
Israel is reporting promising initial results from its COVID-19 vaccine rollout, the fastest in the world.
The first official findings released by the health ministry show that only 0.04% of people caught the virus a week after their second dose, and a mere 0.002% needed hospital treatment.
Clalit, the country’s largest health service organisation, has also released its preliminary data. It compared 200 000 people aged 60 and over who’ve been vaccinated with 200 000 similar unvaccinated older adults. It found that the rate of those who tested positive dropped 33% among the vaccinated 14 days after they received it. No decline was seen in the unvaccinated.
Maccabi, another healthcare organisation, saw an even larger drop. Infections decreased 60% among 430 000 people 13 to 21 days after they received the vaccine. The data also suggested the vaccine was 92% effective, close to the 95% efficacy claimed by Pfizer.
Israeli researchers are conducting more in-depth analysis, and point out that real-world effectiveness of vaccines is often lower than the efficacy seen in clinical trials due to a number of factors.
But experts warn that this data has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal so it should be viewed with some caution.
There are also various factors that could be influencing the results. The current lockdown and behaviour such as travelling and gathering less, wearing masks, and greater physical distancing might be decreasing infections.
The first people to receive the vaccine were mostly from vulnerable populations, so they are more likely to take precautions which could also skew the data.
In spite of the encouraging news, the death toll from COVID-19 continues to climb. Of the 4 816 fatalities at the time of writing, 30% occurred in January when the vaccination rollout was already in full swing. The government blames this on the more transmissible British variant of the virus, especially among children. According to Clalit, when the vaccination campaign started in late December, the new variant caused 30% to 40% of infections, whereas now that figure has doubled.
As for the South African strain, there are currently 80 detected cases in Israel, and there is concern that the vaccine isn’t as effective against this variant. A number of Israelis who previously had COVID-19 have been re-infected with the South African strain, with the most recent case identified two days ago.
Compounding the situation is the flagrant disregard by the ultra-Orthodox community, that comprises just less than 13% of the population, for lockdown rules. Since the start of the pandemic, one in five ultra-Orthodox has tested positive.
Many in the community doubt the safety of the vaccine or believe the country’s citizens are being used as guinea pigs to test its efficacy. Prominent rabbis have also said that communal prayer and study needs to overwrite lockdown concerns.
Last Sunday, 31 January, thousands of ultra-Orthodox mourners, many without masks, crowded together to attend two funerals of famous rabbis who died from coronavirus. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been criticised for not cracking down harshly enough on the community for political reasons – he needs their votes in the upcoming 23 March election.
Residents of Tel Aviv spoke to the SA Jewish Report, complaining that the actions of the ultra-Orthodox were forcing the whole country to go repeatedly into lockdown, and it wasn’t fair. It’s no surprise thus that the latest word from the government is that the current – third – nationwide lockdown may not be Israel’s last.
Many Israelis want cities and towns to once again be divided into red, orange, yellow, and green zones and scales of restrictions to be put in place accordingly. This would mean those who obey the restrictions wouldn’t have to pay the price of those who don’t.
In recent days, there’s also growing concern in some quarters in Israel that because the mass vaccination campaign is running in parallel with an active coronavirus outbreak, it could lead to an “evolutionary pressure” on the virus in which it would ultimately become immune to vaccination. Doctors are suggesting that in future, people will need to take an annual anti-COVID-19 jab, much in the same way the annual flu injection is taken.
But for now, the race to innoculate everyone is on. Among the first to be injected were people aged 60 or older. More than two-thirds of this age group have already received the required two doses. Up to 200 000 people are being injected each day, and the vaccine is now available to anyone over the age of 35. High-school students aged 16 to 18 are also included in the hope that they will be able to sit for exams. It seems Netanyahu is on track to fulfil his promise of innoculating five million of the country’s nine million citizens by the end of March.
To date, just more than one in three Israelis has been inoculated – about 1.7 million of them twice. Because this is a far higher fraction than anywhere else in the world, it makes the country a test case for the international vaccine push.
The right to demonstrate, even during lockdown
Israelis are being allowed out of their homes in full lockdown to call for the resignation of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (Bibi), who is viewed by many on both sides of the political spectrum as corrupt.
This freedom in a lockdown which ordinarily limits you to being no more than one kilometre from your house is based on the country’s constitutional right to protest. On bridges, at junctions, and outside Bibi’s house in Jerusalem, daily protests occur, resuming after Shabbat goes out on Saturday night.
“Lech! Lech!” (Go!) is shouted loudly – which is also the name for the movement against Netanyahu.
There are some staunch Likud followers who scream, “Arafat and Rabin sold out the country,” prompting laughter amongst some demonstrators, who point out that their arguments are old and outdated. Demonstrators including doctors, lawyers, pilots, accountants, and students point out that this isn’t about the Israel-Palestine issue, it’s not about being leftist or rightist, but about ethics and bringing to justice an allegedly corrupt prime minister.
The protestors are passionate, some defying orders not to camp outside Bibi’s residence. At 21:30, police order the drums, trumpets, and whistles to cease. The protestors obey, but continue to demonstrate quietly, so as not to disturb the Jerusalem neighbourhood.
Then, at about 23:00, carrying Israeli flags in blue and white and others in red and white, the protestors pack up and go home to lockdown.
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