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Flooding, beating – seder customs you won’t recognise




If you thought that the Pesach seder experience was universal and uniform, think again. While many of us may be used to a standard routine, communities around the world partake in a colourful yom tov experience that goes well beyond matzah and maror.

For many of us in South Africa, a seder typically follows the same procedure every year. After returning home from shul, we hasten to the table to begin the evening, moving through kiddush, hand washing, and telling the exodus tale. Each person adds an insight (“that was deep, Shirley”), little Joshy sings Ma Nishtana at the top of his voice (“he’s going to be a chazzan when he grows up”), and, after some wine and matzah sampling, we (finally) come to the meal itself.

For many families, however, vibrant and unusual customs enliven the evening. In Gibraltar, for example, the sweet charoset paste contains not only apples and wine, but a dash of brick dust as well. Although it shouldn’t affect the taste of the spread, the dust serves as a more realistic reminder of the mortar which the Jews produced in Egypt while making bricks.

Some people made this more literal by using actual bricks at their seder. Such was reportedly the case during the American Civil War, when Union soldiers sought out the resources to hold a seder in 1862. Unable to produce charoset, they used a brick, which, as one Jewish soldier wrote, was “rather hard to digest, [but] reminded us, by looking at it, for what purpose it was intended”.

Some communities focus on each individual at the seder using the seder plate. A custom that reportedly originated in Spain is for the seder leader to walk around the table three times with the seder plate in hand, tapping it on the head of each guest. Many North African Jews adopted this tradition, which is said to bless those whose heads are tapped, and each time this is done, the leader says, “In haste, we left Egypt.” Every person is thus made to feel as though they are personally redeemed from slavery.

With some theatrical flair, many Sephardi communities have the tradition of putting on a short skit to illustrate the story of redemption. A seder attendee (usually the host) poses as an Israelite who experienced the exodus. Carrying the afikoman in a bag over his shoulder (and perhaps sporting a staff for support), he enters the room and a dialogue follows.

The table asks, “Where are you coming from?” “Egypt,” comes the reply, sometimes followed by a brief story of the Israelites following Moses out of slavery. “And where are you going?” someone at the table asks, to which the traveller responds, “Jerusalem.” Finally, the table asks what the bag contains, and is informed that it contains matzah.

Another Sephardi custom which departs from the norm takes place when the ten plagues are recited. Unlike many Ashkenazim, some Sephardim don’t dot a plate with wine drops, but instead pour from their cups into another vessel. Because this wine is associated with plagues and is therefore “cursed”, it must be flushed down the drain and the vessel used to hold it thrown away. For this reason, some use either a disposable cup or their least favourite bowl that won’t be missed if thrown out.

If you’d like to add some bling to your table, perhaps emulate the custom of the Hungarian Jewish community. In line with the verses in Exodus that say that the Israelites received gold and silver from the Egyptians, Hungarian Jews had a tradition of placing their gold and silver jewellery on the seder table. If that’s too showy for you, you may want to bring some humble scallions to the table instead. These were traditionally used by Jews in Afghanistan, who reportedly used scallions or leeks to represent Egyptian slave drivers’ whips, and used them to beat one another lightly on the back at the seder table.

If the splitting of the sea is something you’ve always wanted to experience, perhaps give a Polish custom a try. Gerer Chassidim who hail from the Polish town of Góra Kalwaria had the custom of bringing the sea into their homes, reportedly draining a barrel of water across the floor and re-enacting the crossing of the sea by lifting the hems of their coats and walking through the pool. Traditionally, they would name the towns they would typically travel through in the region while “crossing”, toasting each destination and thanking G-d for helping them to reach their destination.

So, whether you want to pour water across your dining room floor or beat your guests with vegetables, you can enact some less than usual seder customs at your table this year rather than keep up with the Cohens.

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The never-ending voice



And Charlton Heston came down from Mount Sinai and gave us the ten commandments. Oops! Sorry, make that Moses. And he was carrying the tablets with the Big 10, repeated this week in Deuteronomy as part of Moses’ review of the past 40 years. He describes how G-d spoke those words in a mighty voice that didn’t end.

Rashi writes that Moses is contrasting G-d’s voice with human voices. The finite voice of a human being, even a Pavarotti, will fade and falter. It cannot go on forever. But the voice of the Almighty didn’t end, didn’t weaken. It remained strong throughout.

Is this all the great prophet had to teach us about the voice of G-d? That it was a powerful baritone? Is the greatness of the Infinite One, that he didn’t suffer from shortness of breath, that He didn’t need a few puffs of Ventolin? Is this a meaningful motivation for the Jews to accept the Torah?

Moses was the greatest of all prophets. He foresaw what no other prophet could see. Perhaps he saw his people becoming caught up in the civilization of ancient Greece, in the beauty, culture, philosophy, and art of the day. And they might question, “Is Torah still relevant?”

Perhaps he foresaw Jews empowered by the industrial revolution, where they might have thought Torah to be somewhat backward. Or maybe it was during the Russian Revolution, where faith and religion were deemed to be absolutely primitive.

Maybe Moses saw our own generation, with space shuttles and satellites, teleprompters and technology. And he saw young people questioning whether the good book still spoke to them.

And so, Moses tells us that the voice that thundered from Sinai was no ordinary voice. This was a voice that wasn’t only powerful at the time, it didn’t end. And it still rings out, still resonates, and speaks to each of us in every generation and every part of the world.

Revolutions come and go, but revelation is eternal. The voice of Sinai continues to proclaim eternal truths that never become passé or irrelevant. Honour your parents, revere them, look after them in their old age. Live moral lives, don’t tamper with the sacred fibre of family life. Dedicate one day every week, and keep that day holy. Stop the madness. Turn your back on the rat race, and rediscover your humanity and your children. Don’t be guilty of greed, envy, dishonesty, or corruption.

Are these ideas and values dated? Are these commandments tired or irrelevant? On the contrary. They speak to us now as perhaps never before.

Does anyone know this today better than us South Africans?

The G-dly voice has lost none of its strength, none of its majesty. The mortal voice of man declines and fades into oblivion. Politicians and spin-doctors come and go, but the heavenly sound reverberates down the ages.

Moses knew what he was saying. Torah is truth, and truth is forever. The voice of G-d shall never be stilled.

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Memory versus history



Devarim is the parsha associated with Tisha B’Av, the Jewish national day of mourning. After Shabbos, we will recall the destruction of our holy temple nearly 2 000 years ago.

But why remember? The world cannot understand why we go on about the Holocaust, and that was less than 80 years ago! For more than 19 centuries, we have been remembering and observing this event, and it has become the saddest day in our calendar. Why? Why not let bygones be bygones? It’s history. What was, was. Why keep revisiting old and painful visions?

They say that Napoleon was once passing through the Jewish ghetto in Paris, and heard sounds of crying and wailing emanating from a synagogue. He stopped to ask what the lament was about. He was told that the Jews were remembering the destruction of their Temple. “When did it happen?” asked the emperor. “Some 1 700 years ago,” was the answer. Whereupon Napoleon stated with conviction that a people who never forgot their past would be destined to forever have a future.

Elie Wiesel famously once said that Jews have never had history. We have memory. History can become a book, a museum, and forgotten antiquities. Memory is alive, memories reverberate, and memory guarantees our future.

Even amidst the ruins, we refused to forget. The first temple was destroyed by the Babylonians. As they led the Jews into captivity, they sat down and wept. “By the rivers of Babylon, we sat and wept remembering Zion.” What did they cry of? Their lost wealth, homes, and businesses? No. They cried for Zion and Jerusalem. “If I forget thee ‘O Jerusalem, let my right hand lose its cunning.” They were not weeping for themselves or their lost liberties but for the heavenly city and holy temple. Amidst the bondage, they aspired to rebuild, amidst the ruins, they dreamt of returning.

And because we refused to forget Jerusalem, we did return. And because we refused to accept defeat or accept our exile as a historical fait accompli, we have rebuilt proud Jewish communities the world over, while our victors have been vanquished by time. Today, there are no more Babylonians, and the people who now live in Rome aren’t the Romans who destroyed the second temple. Those nations became history while we, inspired by memory, emerged revitalised and regenerated and forever it will be true that am Yisrael chai (the people of Israel live).

Only if we refuse to forget can we hope to rebuild one day. Indeed, the Talmud assures us, “Whosoever mourns for Jerusalem, will merit to witness her rejoicing.” We dare not forget. We need to observe our national day of mourning this Saturday night and Sunday. Forego the movies and the restaurants. Sit down on a low seat to mourn with your people; and perhaps even more importantly, to remember. And, please G-d, He will restore those glorious days and rebuild His own everlasting house soon.

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Exile is a state of being



In parshas Massei, the Torah traces our journey in the desert by listing all 42 camps that we passed through. This is a forerunner for Jewish history. Even the most superficial knowledge of Jewish history reveals that a large chunk of it has been spent in exile. Under the nations of the world, the Jewish people suffered immensely. How are we meant to understand this? There are four main points to appreciate.

Chazal tell us that the Jewish people are so beloved by Hashem, that when they were sent into exile for their sins, Hashem accompanied them. The greatest demonstration of His love is the fact that the Jewish people have survived almost 2 000 years of persecution and numerous attempts to annihilate us. So great is this miracle, it surpasses the collective miracles of the exodus of Egypt and our wandering in the desert and in the land of Israel.

Second, when the Jews wandered in the wilderness for 40 years, their survival was supernatural – they were wholly dependent on Hashem. He rained down bread from the sky, provided a well of water, and protected us with seven miraculous clouds. This was the education needed to sear into our consciousness the perspective that Hashem is the source of everything, and we must strive to fulfil His will.

Land, prosperity, and institutions of statehood were put at the Jewish people’s disposal not as goals in themselves, but as a means for the fulfilment of the Torah. When Jews lost sight of their true purpose and began to emulate the ideals of the nations around them, worshipping wealth and prosperity, they were deprived of those things that they had begun to worship, leaving their land with only the Torah to guide them.

Exile was meant, first and foremost, to benefit and perfect us. The Jewish people witnessed powerful empires disappear while we endured, devoid of might and majesty, but loyal to Hashem. How many times have Jews been offered a doorway to earthly pleasure and security if only they renounce their loyalty to G-d? How many times did Jews scorn the lure of wealth and pleasure and even sacrificed their most precious treasures in this world – their wives, children, brothers and sisters – for Hashem?

Chazal tell us that a third benefit of exile was to inspire conversion. Indeed, there have been many great converts in our history.

Fourth, the Jewish people were scattered throughout the world for our protection. If we were all under the jurisdiction of one ruler, he would attempt to destroy us all.

Exile isn’t just banishment from Israel. Exile is a state of being that also applies to individuals. Every person experiences tranquil periods when he finds it easy to learn Torah and pray with concentration. Yet when times are hard, he struggles. It’s specifically at these times that he mustn’t become empty of Torah and prayer, rather, he must strive to sanctify “desert” periods.

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