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Look no further than Durban for origins of activist antisemitism

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The infamous World Conference Against Racism held in Durban in 2001 set the standard for much of the anti-Israel and antisemitic rhetoric of today. Numerous so-called “human-rights protectors” continue to fall back on the same language and lies in their criticism of the Jewish state, and the need to hold them accountable is more pressing than ever.

So say Gerald Steinberg and Shaun Sacks, whose work at non-government organisation (NGO) Monitor aims to address this problem.

They unpacked the latest trends in antisemitism last Thursday, 4 March, at an event hosted by the antisemitism and legal subcommittee of the Cape South African Jewish Board of Deputies, tracing many developments back to the events in Durban 20 years ago.

“Durban is really the opening point,” says Steinberg, the president of Monitor. “It was in this context that the final declaration [against Israel] was adopted.

“There is a tendency to attribute BDS [the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions movement] to the Palestinians, and to describe Omar Barghouti as the founder. That’s bad history. BDS really began at Durban through the NGO forum, and its final declaration focused on Israel. In the declaration, the term apartheid was used many times.”

The declaration was adopted by 5 000 delegates and 1 500 organisations (among them Amnesty International) and called on the international community to isolate Israel as had been done to South Africa.

Says Steinberg, “They took the package of the anti-apartheid movement and dropped it onto the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Off course, it was entirely against Israel.

“The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court [ICC] announced last week the decision to investigate Israeli and Palestinian actions,” he says. “I don’t think anyone really takes them [the Palestinian actions] seriously – the Palestinians certainly don’t.

“It subjects Israel to further demonisation, something which, like BDS, began at Durban.”

In spite of the inroads it has made into advocacy, BDS has had almost no economic impact, Steinberg says.

“It’s a failure economically. It has had almost no impact on the Israeli economy. A few companies were affected but essentially, the economy wasn’t. What succeeded, however, was combining BDS with ‘lawfare’.

“The framework was so solidly crystalised, it succeeded in labelling Israel in general as a country of war criminals, occupiers, and colonialists,” Steinberg says. “Its allegations are uniquely focused on Israel. That’s the real damage of the Durban strategy.

“It took 20 years, but they have succeeded in labelling Israel, especially among so-called progressives and liberals.”

For this reason, the events at Durban were the trigger for the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance working definition of antisemitism.

“There’s a direct link between Durban and the definition,” Steinberg says. “They took what they saw happening at Durban. Contemporary examples of antisemitism include denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, applying double standards, using symbols associated with classic antisemitism, and drawing comparisons between contemporary Israeli policy and that of the Nazis.

“These grew out of Durban, and are what we have to deal with when looking at BDS.”

NGOS are leading the ICC process. “They are the ones who give ‘evidence’ to the ICC, who present volumes of allegations and false claims in order to promote the agenda,” says Steinberg. “They have massive budgets that go into their campaigns every year, have special access to the United Nations, and are motivated by a combination of post-colonial ideology and anti-Western sentiment.”

“There’s always a strong element of antisemitism.”

Many of the NGOs also became consultants, Steinberg says, driving the spirit of Durban 2001.

“They use the halo effect,” he says. “If they say Israel commits war crimes, it’s put into the media as a headline story. Journalists simply cut and paste what these NGOs report, it goes into the media with no independent investigation of accuracy, and is then quoted by diplomats.”

The organisations are believed because of their status as human-rights groups, he says.

“Because they fought apartheid 30 years ago, they have an image of morality, but they have long since left that framework.

“Robert Bernstein, the founder of Human Rights Watch, denounced his own organisation in 2009 for abandoning its moral compass and turning Israel into a pariah. Ambassadors even freely quote NGOs in spite of many of them having links to terror.”

Sacks, a senior researcher at NGO Monitor, illustrated some cases the organisation has dealt with. NGO Monitor maintains a database of about 200 human rights and humanitarian groups, promoting accountability from those claiming to advance human rights.

“Palestinian organisation Al-Haq became active following the proposal-of-action plan against Israel,” Sacks says. “It proposed sanctions via the UN, along with international legal activities. It’s a major driving force at the ICC.

“This same organisation acknowledged that it sees the ICC simply as a tool for more Palestinian independence. A video it put out in 2018 called the creation of Israel in 1948 illegal, and needing to be addressed by the ICC.”

Another is the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR).

“At the conference, it objected to any language that didn’t recognise the ‘racist’ nature of Zionism,” Sacks says. “It wanted that to be the focus of Durban. When the conference commissioner said some of the calls by NGOs had gone too far, PCHR circulated a petition calling on her to resign.”

Certain Israeli organisations were also involved in Durban, and continue to use language in the same way, Sacks says. B’Tselem, for instance, makes a point of not calling for boycotts but for “international consequences and pressure”.

“Soon after Durban, it threw around the apartheid label, and recently released a report about Israel being a regime of Jewish supremacy.”

In 2014, Amnesty International recruited an organisation to investigate the events which transpired in Gaza 2014, relying on the PCHR to provide information.

“It put together an online tool of all attacks committed by Israelis,” Sacks says. “It was a massive platform where you could see every place Israel was accused of killing Palestinians.

“In every instance we looked at, all we did was a simple cross reference, and found that murdered ‘civilians’ were also martyrs and members of armed groups. Amnesty acknowledged none of this.”

Beyond BDS, NGOs active in South Africa include the Media Review Network, which in 2005, shared material on its website suggesting that 9/11 was a conspiracy theory, and blaming the Mossad. It also promoted the idea that the Holocaust was possibly a myth.

“Today, we are accused of spreading COVID-19 or allowing Palestinians to be infected,” Sacks says. “A Jewish anti-Israel activist wrote online that six million Jewish Israelis under COVID-19 lockdown were getting a taste of what the Palestinians experience.

“The then head of Human Rights Watch’s Middle East programme commented, saying it was just missing a ‘tablespoon of blood’. These are human-rights activists, and they have no problem using this type of language.”

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SA government and politicians show bias as Israel conflict escalates

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As Israel faced a steady bombardment of deadly rockets fired by terrorist groups in Gaza this week, the South African government, politicians, and activists condemned the Jewish state, ignoring the myriad complexities of the violence.

And as Hamas escalated its barrage of rockets targeting innocent civilians, to which Israel retaliated, there has been no condemnation of Hamas from either the South African government or any of its politicians.

Israel’s right to defend itself and diffuse tensions in a bid to save the lives of all its citizens including Jews, Muslims, and Christians, hasn’t been acknowledged by the government in its condemnation of the Jewish state.

Siding wholly with the Palestinians, the government earlier this week expressed its “deep concern at the continued clashes at Al-Aqsa Mosque wherein Israeli soldiers attacked Palestinian worshippers while praying at the holy site”.

The Economic Freedom Fighters said it noted “the genocide” committed by Israel against the Palestinian people during Ramadan, saying “We condemn with contempt the violence perpetrated by the apartheid Israeli state on unarmed Palestinian people.” It called on the government to close down the South African embassy in Israel and recall all its representatives there.

No mention has been made about Palestinians at the Al-Aqsa Mosque stockpiling rocks, fireworks, and stone slabs around the site in preparation for violence and attacking Israeli police.

Focusing all its attention on the land dispute and potential eviction of Palestinians from Sheikh Jarrah, the government ignored a multitude of issues that have contributed to the rising wave of violence since April.

The department of international relations and cooperation (DIRCO) issued a statement saying, “The South African government strongly condemns the attacks and planned evictions of Palestinians from annexed East Jerusalem to make way for Israeli settlements.

“It’s perplexing that during these unprecedented times, as the international community addresses the global challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, Israel is exploiting the situation to advance its de facto annexation of Palestinian land. These acts aren’t only illegal but also risk undermining the viability of a negotiated two-state solution and will have negative consequences on the entire peace process.”

In response to this, the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD) and the South African Zionist Federation (SAZF) called on the government, all political parties, and the media to show “even-handedness” and acknowledge the complexity of the situation.

In a joint statement, SAJBD National Chairperson Wendy Kahn and SAZF Chairperson Rowan Polovin, said, “In their determination to condemn Israel come what may, the government has reversed cause and effect. The reality – and not for the first time – is that the initial clashes were deliberately orchestrated by the Palestinian leadership and have now culminated in a lethal barrage of missile fire on Jerusalem and other heavily populated cities.

“Rockets are indiscriminate. They imperil the lives of all who live in the Holy City, whether Jew, Christian, or Muslim. In spite of this, the South African government has chosen to single out Israel for exclusive condemnation, disregarding completely the more than 1 200 deadly rockets fired thus far against Israeli civilians.

“The double standards don’t stop there. Whereas countries throughout the world sent condolences to Israel following the tragic loss of 45 lives in Meron, South Africa has yet to follow suit even two weeks later. However, within 24 hours, it was able to issue a statement condemning Israel.

“If the government, and indeed all political parties, wish to be part of ending this latest tragic outburst of violence, they must show genuine even-handedness. Those who unquestioningly endorse the claims and actions of one side while completely ignoring those of the other do nothing to resolve the conflict. In fact, they only make a bad situation worse.”

They went on to say that demonising Israel, as was the case with certain statements, was “irresponsible, inflammatory, and dangerous”.

The Israeli ambassador to South Africa, Lior Keinan, told the SA Jewish Report that no country in the world would tolerate this level of terror.

He has called on the international community and South Africa to condemn the rocket fire and Palestinian terrorism targeting Israeli citizens in the “strongest manner”, as well as to support Israel’s right to self-defence.

Keinan said that these events were part of a “wave of terror” that was being led by Hamas, the Palestinian Authority and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and were the result of “reckless and irresponsible incitement to violence”.

Concerning earlier violence, he said, “Israel sought to achieve calm in Jerusalem. We took every measure to prevent conflict or violence and to allow freedom of worship. These measures include postponing the Supreme Court hearing regarding Sheikh Jarrah, blocking Jews from visiting the Temple Mount, changing the route of the flag march, and then cancelling the event. Moreover, Israel acted in a measured manner in response to the rockets and incendiary balloons that had been launched from the Gaza Strip to prevent any escalation during this sensitive period.”

He said responsibility for the situation rested completely with Palestinian terrorist organisations and “on the unrestrained incitement by the Palestinian Authority”.

“No country will allow rockets to be fired on its children, women, and men. Israel will take any action necessary to protect its citizens. It’s the right and the duty of every state.”

Meanwhile, small protests were held by pro-Palestinian groups at the Israel Trade Offices in Sandton, Johannesburg, and Cape Town, all of which blamed Israel for being solely responsible for the violence.

Interestingly, in an open letter to DIRCO Minister Naledi Pandor, the South African BDS (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions) Coalition said it was “extremely disappointed” by DIRCO’s statement about the conflict, calling for more action by the government.

The Democratic Alliance said Israel must “employ maximum restraint in the use of force” adding “violence from both sides must cease in the interest of peace, saving lives, and protecting the human rights of both the Israeli and Palestinian people”.

Dr Corne Mulder of the Freedom Front Plus said, “The ANC government has never tried to hide its hostility towards Israel, and has now once again chosen the terrorist side in the Israel-Palestine conflict. It’s time for the ANC to honour Israel’s sovereignty.

“It’s lamentable that the South African government is always so quick to side with Israel’s opponents and condemn the country,” he said.

In Cape Town, a protest organised by Africa4Palestine (formerly BDS SA), brought a number of anti-Israel groups together. But only about 200 members of the public gathered to condemn Israel, many of them children.

Speaking in front of parliament, the late Nelson Mandela’s grandson, Mandla Mandela called for the closure of the South African embassy in Israel. “We are clearly asking South Africa not to downgrade its embassy in Israel, but to close it down!” he shouted to cheers from the crowd. “We also want to deny [Israeli international carrier] El Al from coming into South Africa!” he said to more cheers of support.

He called for South Africans to “boycott products from apartheid Israel. The only thing we expect from our government is to place sanctions on apartheid Israel!” He then called on the crowd to join him on 18 July in Pretoria (the date marked to celebrate Nelson Mandela’s legacy) outside the Israeli embassy in Pretoria. “We want to see it shut down and for the ambassador to leave. We won’t compromise,” Mandela said.

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Rise in anti-Israel sentiment leads to calls for vigilance

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The Community Security Organisation (CSO) has witnessed a marked increase in anti-Israel rhetoric as well as expressions of hate directed at Jews online following violence in Israel, and has appealed to the community to be extra vigilant and report all incidents.

Jevon Greenblatt, the director of CSO Johannesburg, told the SA Jewish Report on 12 May that tension in Israel had escalated dramatically over the past few days, with levels of open conflict growing exponentially over the past 48 hours.

“It’s not uncommon for anti-Israel anger around a situation like this to spill over into diaspora Jewish communities,” he said.

“Since Monday, we have seen a significant increase in concerning online rhetoric and numerous protest action called for over the coming days across South Africa.

“We are seeing a huge campaign by the anti-Israel lobby to dehumanise Israel with massive distortions about what’s really happening on the ground.”

Political leaders, social-media influencers, and celebrities are lending their voices to the pro-Palestinian lobby.

“This creates the perfect environment for a potential lone-wolf actor to carry out an attack. Whenever something like this takes place, our concern is that the anger created can be misdirected against the local community.”

He said that while CSO staff and volunteers were working hard to ensure the continued safety and security of the community, it was a “collective effort”.

“Vigilance is crucial. We should always make sure our facilities are as secure as possible, and we should always be doing the best we can to strengthen our security.

“It’s at times like this that we are reminded always to implement the best safety protocols because the threat is always out there.

“It requires the active participation of all community members. We ask you to maintain heightened awareness and report any emergency, potential threats, suspicious activity, or antisemitism related to the Jewish community or Jewish facilities to the CSO on 086 18 000 18 (or 086 18 911 18 in Cape Town).”

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Guarding Jerusalem from the “end of the end” of Israel

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The Golan is the true gatekeeper of Jerusalem, particularly in mitigating against the Iranian threat across the border, Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Major (Res) Yaakov Selevan said during a talk to commemorate Yom Yerushalayim this week.

“People who live in the Golan claim that it’s the most naturally beautiful region in Israel. But they aren’t living here for the views; they are here because there is something for which they’re willing to die – the redemption of the heart of the Jewish people.”

Selevan, a Jerusalem born-and-bred military official who now works as a tour guide and public speaker, was hosted for the webinar by Mizrachi SA and the South African Zionist Federation, in collaboration with other partners.

Although Selevan grew up with “the Western Wall as my backyard”, he now lives with his wife and three daughters in the Golan. Over the years, he has come to realise how deeply intertwined the fates of these two Israeli regions are.

Logistically, the Golan has always been a key strategic point, both in its proximity to neighbouring countries and major water sources, including the Sea of Galilee. Politically, its significance is even greater.

Even in the Roman era, when Roman soldiers were unable to penetrate the Jewish resistance in Jerusalem, they elected to try and attack from the periphery and move down. At the time, the Golan was rich in Jewish life with more than 30 synagogues. In the year 67, in spite of the efforts of Jewish revolutionaries, after a number of attempts, the Romans did overtake the ancient city of Gamla in the Golan. “They killed more than 4 000 Jews. Jewish independence fell, and then the Romans started moving down towards the heart of the land – Jerusalem. Three years later, we know, the second temple was destroyed.”

Fast forward thousands of years, when the Golan was redeemed from Syrian control by the IDF in the 1967 war, a number of fascinating ancient Jewish artefacts were found. The most striking of which was an ancient coin from the era of the Jewish revolt against Roman control. Engraved in Hebrew, its inscription reads “for the redemption of Jerusalem, the holy”.

In the modern political landscape, the Golan remains a contested hotspot particularly in relation to Iran and its ongoing incursions into the borderlands of Lebanon and Syria.

Selevan said that for many years, Iran had also used Israel and Jews symbolically as a strategy to forge allegiances across Muslim and Arab states that otherwise would be divided across Sunni and Shiite ethnic lines. These distinctions are derived from a dispute over the line of succession after Muhammed.

After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, “Iran wanted to ‘export the revolution’, and it realised it had a problem. While they were Shiites, most of the people around them were Sunni.” So, said Selevan, they chose a “common interest – the holy city of Jerusalem. Who controls the old city of Jerusalem? The filthy Zionists.” Moreover, as enemies across the Arab world sought ways to attack Israel, they turned to Hezbollah, which is supported by Iran.

Iran remains a threat to Israel on a number of levels, Selevan said. The first is its nuclear programme; the second its Precision Guided Munitions project, which designs missiles that use GPS to hit specific targets. Third, is its political take over and proxy power in various countries like Lebanon and Yemen. The next key territory which Iran is looking to control in the region is Syria, itself riddled by a civil war that has been appropriated by a myriad of interests.

In Lebanon, Iran controls networks of tunnels and occupied villages where local people are being used as human shields and whose homes are utilised for the storage of missiles and rockets. It hopes to use the chaos in Syria to take over using a similar model.

However, along with military action, Israel has made huge inroads diplomatically to prevent this, Selevan said.

“Iran used us and Jerusalem as a common interest, a common enemy, and a step in the door to the Sunni world. However, in the past few years, with what’s happening just here in Syria, people in the region are seeing what the Iranians are doing and how they’re taking over this region. They realise that they are next in line: Saudi Arabia, even Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, all these countries said, ‘Oh my G-d, all these years, we thought the Jews were the problem. Now we understand the greatest threat is the Shiites. Who can help us against the Shiites? The Jews!’”

Israel has thus turned Iran into the common interest which is “our step in the door of the Muslim world”. The most recent result is the Abraham Accords peace agreements, said Selevan.

Israel has another way in which it continues to forge towards peace – humanitarian aid.

Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, Israel has helped, offering medical services and distributing food, clothing, and other products for basic needs, proving, “you can stop Iran with baby diapers”.

At its core, the motivation for the action is humanitarian, said Selevan. “We did it because we’re Jewish; we cannot stand by when we see people suffering.”

Nevertheless, it also had an impact on political engagement. Terror groups, such as those under Iranian control, are reliant on local populations for support, access to land, and soldiers. As Israel continues to reach out to her neighbours, “there’s a whole generation growing up in Syria knowing that we’re not the devil”.

Although this doesn’t mean there aren’t still many who are against Israel and are manipulating the aid system, nevertheless there are shifts. For Selevan, this is encompassed by a drawing made by a seven-year-old Syrian Muslim girl. Her portrait of the Israel flag, captioned in Arabic, thanks the Israeli who saved her life.

In spite of the huge upswing of attacks on Israel in recent days, Selevan said he was hopeful. His life in the Golan is a contract between him, his country, and his community.

“I’m here at the end of the end of the end of the country because someone needs to be here, because my community is the greatest answer to the Iranian threat. That’s my purpose. That’s my essence.” Holding out a replica of the Jewish-revolt-era coin, Selevan asserted, “Each and every one of us needs to ask ourselves: what’s my job in the redemption of Jerusalem?”

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