Holocaust educator takes message to the masses
Clive Mashishi is a man on a mission. A former construction worker, he left his job to educate local communities about the Holocaust, Israel, antisemitism, and Jewish history. Last year, he joined the World Jewish Congress’ International Holocaust Remembrance Day initiative, #WeRemember, stringing banners across busy bridges and roads, opening up avenues of education for people who had never heard about the Holocaust.
So how did a man from the Vaal area of Gauteng who had no Jewish background or connection come to be the face of Holocaust remembrance in the region? He says that while his father called him Clive after his Jewish boss, and his grandmother worked for a Jewish woman, he had few interactions with Jews. In his community, stereotypes about Jews abounded, although he always had a fondness for the Jewish community.
It was only after a long journey through various political parties and movements, eventually finding a “home” at the South African Friends of Israel (SAFI), that he first realised the full extent of the Holocaust, and it changed his life.
“When [former SAFI director] Dr Gavi Sacks spoke to me about the Holocaust, I saw pain in his eyes. I’ve seen antisemitism at universities, and I’ve read a lot of books, watched a lot of movies. But it’s not the same as speaking to someone connected to the history of the Holocaust,” he says.
“Then, during International Apartheid Week, I spoke at the University of Cape Town and Wits [the University of the Witwatersrand]. I saw antisemitism and hatred there, even people saying the Holocaust was fake. After that, I worked with the World Jewish Congress on the #WeRemember campaign.
“Then last year when the pandemic started, I saw the hatred grow. Texts like The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were distributed around communities, and people believed that Jews had created COVID-19 to control the world. After seeing that and knowing what Jewish students were facing, I sat with my small team and we decided to dedicate this year to educating our communities [about the Holocaust].”
He aims to educate based on fact. Many people simply don’t know about the Holocaust, he says, and their perceptions of Jews are based on stereotypes and a lack of knowledge and interaction as opposed to malicious intent. However, often political leaders buy into antisemitic ideas.
“Political parties are antisemitic, even if they try to hide it. They put it in the category of ‘white monopoly’, but you can sense it’s there in their policies and ideological thinking. I used to hope I could make them listen, but I’ve realised I can’t. So I would rather educate the masses. You can’t trust politicians, but if you go to the people, the politicians will listen to them.”
Mashishi says people welcome the information he shares with them. “There has been an amazing response. I thought the first #WeRemember banner I put up would be removed within a day. But it stayed up, people took photos, and wanted to know more. People called and asked me what we were remembering, and I explained about the victims of the Holocaust. Many were amazed to hear what the Jewish community had faced. People become invested, they want to learn more, they read up about it on their smartphones, or they borrow books. When they ask me more questions, I can hear they know more than they did before.”
One result of his work is that people have asked to visit the Johannesburg Holocaust & Genocide Centre. “People didn’t have that education, and now they want to gain knowledge that they missed out on.”
Mashishi has started his year-long campaign with an advert on Hope FM radio station talking about the #WeRemember campaign and linking it to Human Rights Month in South Africa. He says he expected people to question the advert, but there have been only positive responses.
His next step is to screen the film The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas on a projector screen in various communities. “People can sit in their yards and watch it, but still keep a social distance. It will give people a little bit of information, then they can continue with their own research.”
But he doesn’t want to stop there. “My goal is to go to other provinces. More vocal antisemitism often comes from rural areas.”
Mashishi often thanks the person who taught him the basics of what he knows, and he sees himself as continuing that chain. “I loved the Jewish community but I didn’t know the history. He found me in a political party, fighting with people about being anti-Israel. He didn’t tell me to leave, but after that, I realised that it wasn’t the right movement. He motivated me to study more. And now I’ve met a kid in Mafikeng, and he’s just like me. He’s very interested. So, it’s about educating the next generation.”
Mashishi’s work is supported by donations, but he emphasises that he has found his purpose, and will continue no matter what. He could benefit from having his own transport so that he can travel further and work with more people.
People don’t see how much the Jewish community works to uplift others in the country, Mashishi says. His own work goes beyond education – he has worked closely with The Angel Network (TAN), distributing food and other urgently-needed resources during the pandemic.
“We first met Clive in 2019. He was a quiet, shy, unassuming young man,” says Glynne Wolman, the founder of TAN. “At that time, he was trying to feed desperate people, and we tried to help where we could.. Now he assists us in distributing a portion of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies’ R15 million food relief fund (of which TAN is the custodian), to those most in need. He is one of our biggest advocates, and we are extremely proud to be associated with him. He’s done everything from helping people after a fire to mentoring drug addicts. He just wants to fix the world.”
UCT lecturer’s Hitler comment causes outrage
The fact that a high-level University of Cape Town (UCT) lecturer told his students that “Hitler committed no crime” seems too unbelievable to be true, but it happened on 7 April 2021, on the eve of Yom Hashoah.
The phrase was uttered in a pre-recorded “introduction to political science” lecture by Dr Lwazi Lushaba, a lecturer in the political studies department at UCT, for first-year students. His only response to questions by the SA Jewish Report about his comment was, “please watch and be educated”, attaching the lecture and signing off as “Commandante Lushaba”.
During the talk, he claimed that politics hadn’t been informed by the lived experiences of black people, and that it took “what Hitler did to white people” to have massacres recognised in political science. “All Hitler did was to do to white people what white people had reserved for us – black people,” Lushaba said. “And so his crime, if he had a crime, was to do unto white people what white people have thought was right to do only to black people.” He went on to say that the Holocaust mustn’t be prioritised over other massacres.
The comments have sown deep division, and have been hijacked by some wanting to criticise Israel and the Jewish community. However, leading educator Professor Jonathan Jansen tweeted, “From the Wits student, Dlamini, to the UCT lecturer, Lushaba, the positive referencing of Hitler is more than attention-seeking behaviour by the intellectually vacuous. They reveal the utter depravity of the public discourse on university campuses today.”
The Democratic Alliance (DA) is to lodge a complaint against Lushaba with the South African Human Rights Commission. “The Holocaust was unequivocally a crime against humanity orchestrated by Hitler. The DA therefore strongly condemns the comments made by Lushaba,” said DA MP Natasha Mazzone.
“His comments weren’t only racist, offensive, and vile, but also completely insensitive to the victims and survivors of the Holocaust and the Jewish community as a whole. In remembering the victims of the Holocaust, we must place a renewed sense of responsibility on those in positions of power and influence to defend the truth and defend our democracy against any racist or antisemitic sentiments.”
“Lushaba has a long history of offensive and controversial actions,” Mazzone said. “In 2019, he allegedly took exception to one of the contenders in UCT’s election of its dean of humanities being Tanzanian and not South African. In an interview with Power FM, Lushaba stated that “reason and rationality are white”. Lushaba was also suspended by Wits [the University of the Witwatersrand] in 2015 for “participating in activities which weren’t conducive to free and fair elections, and were intolerant to a democratic society”.
The DA urged the institution’s vice-chancellor, Mamokgethi Phakeng, to place Lushaba on suspension pending the investigation. But UCT’s students’ representative council (SRC) has defended the lecturer. SRC chairperson Declan Dyer said it noted the public reaction, but the comments had been taken out of context, and were part of a larger critique of political science.
Student responses have varied. Jewish student Sam McNally, who is studying for a Bachelor of Arts in English and politics, told the SA Jewish Report, “As someone who has watched the lecture in its entirety, I believe Dr Lushaba’s point about the hypocrisy of ‘Western’ or ‘white’ political science holds up, but only in a very general sense. But his argument neglects to mention that Jews at the time weren’t exactly considered white and certainly weren’t considered such by eugenics, the prevailing racial ‘science’ of the time that formed a large part of Hitler’s justification for his actions.
“My main issue regarding the statement that ‘Hitler committed no crime’ is that it bears little to no relation to the point [Lushaba was trying to make],” continues McNally. “White people being hypocritical about genocide has nothing to do with Hitler’s criminality. As to whether Dr Lushaba meant something different by his comment – which is a theory I have heard postulated, particularly in the form, ‘He didn’t mean to say that Hitler committed no crime, but that he committed no more of a crime than colonial architects of genocide’, my view is that if he meant that, then he should have said it.”
Another Jewish student, speaking on condition of anonymity, says, “I believe Dr Lushaba is very critical of white people. I believe he was very negligent in his use of words. However, I don’t believe his statements were hate speech or antisemitic. I believe he was trying to illustrate the point that the world took notice of atrocities only when they were done to white people.”
Professor Adam Mendelsohn, the director of the Kaplan Centre for Jewish Studies at UCT, says, “On the face of it, Dr Lushaba’s comments appear to justify the Holocaust and absolve Hitler of responsibility for mass murder. Hearing his comments in the context of the broader lecture, Dr Lushaba seems to be claiming that Hitler acted within the legal and institutional system of the German state, and was therefore – according to the prevailing terms of German law – guilty of no explicit crime. This interpretation may make sense given Dr Lushaba’s larger argument about the shift of thinking within political studies as well as his repeated recognition that Nazism was responsible for genocide.
“All that being said, the historical claims that Dr Lushaba makes – about Hitler’s rise to power, the role of law within the Nazi state, the nature of Nazi antisemitism, and the ‘whiteness’ of Jews, the timing of the Final Solution – betray significant historical blind spots and errors,” Mendelsohn says. “At many points in his lecture, dubious historical claims are yoked to polemical claims. He could do with reading much more about Nazism and the Holocaust.”
Mathilde Myburgh, communications officer at the Cape South African Jewish Board of Deputies, says the board has given videos of Lushaba’s lecture and supporting information to its antisemitism and legal subcommittee, which is investigating the matter.
“Academic freedom and freedom of expression mustn’t undermine the central aim of our Constitution, which is to build a united and democratic South Africa based on mutual respect, understanding, and human dignity. Universities help shape the minds of the future leaders of our country. The personal views shared by this UCT lecturer were received as hateful and deeply offensive, and should have no part in the academic syllabus of a public university,” she says.
“To our knowledge, Dr Lushaba hasn’t yet apologised for or retracted his remarks. We await his further engagement on the matter, and would be willing to meet him. We have reached out to Vice-Chancellor Phakeng, and the university has launched an investigation. We believe the matter is for UCT to investigate and respond before any further measures are considered.”
Tali Nates and Mary Kluk of the South African Holocaust & Genocide Foundation say, “The Holocaust is one of the most horrific periods in the history of mankind. It’s deeply disturbing to hear reference to this painful history in a manner so laden with irony and cynicism without consideration of the damage and hurt that this flippant reference can cause.”
Says UCT spokesperson Elijah Moholola, “The University of Cape Town has been alerted to and notes with grave concern comments allegedly made by a staff member during an online class. We are verifying all the facts. In the meantime, UCT is clear that all brutalities of genocide constitute both formal crimes against humanity and ongoing sources of pain. We distance ourselves strongly from any other view. The matter is receiving attention through all appropriate channels.”
Graeme Bloch: icon of education and activism
In a tragic irony, a man who lived life to the full was condemned to endure an illness that meant he could no longer move or speak. But when Graeme Bloch died on Friday, 9 April 2021, at the age of 65, there was little doubt about the impact he had made on the struggle for a democratic South Africa and in the field of education, his true calling.
Watching their brother deteriorate from someone who hiked, ran marathons, loved to debate, and was an excellent speaker has been difficult for Lance and Shaun Bloch, two of his brothers who spoke to the SA Jewish Report in the wake of his death. Graeme was diagnosed with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy seven years ago.
The seven Bloch siblings have faced much trauma and tragedy in recent years, when their elderly mother, Rosalie Bloch, and her partner, Aubrey Jackson, were murdered in their home in 2018.
“I was actually in Cape Town to wrap up their estate last week when Graeme got pneumonia and was hospitalised,” says Shaun. “Graeme tested COVID-19-negative. Ironically, my brother, Guy, was admitted to the exact same ward at the same time for a minor health issue. It was a blessing in disguise because Guy could check on Graeme in the night.” He says Graeme was “up and down”, but “eventually deteriorated quite quickly and passed away”.
His life was fascinating and full from the start. As one of seven siblings (six boys and a girl), “it was an exciting, vibrant, intellectual household”, says Lance. “My father was a plastic surgeon, my mother a lawyer, so it was a really stimulating environment.” Shaun feels that debate, discussion, education, and recognising that all people are equal were all Jewish values instilled by their parents, and had a profound impact on Graeme, informing his choices from a young age.
“At the same time it was a very active family – we spent almost every weekend on the mountain,” says Lance. “He was a high achiever academically. I was often known as ‘Graeme’s brother’, as he really blazed a trail at school and university.”
Bloch’s passion for education and equal access to it started young. “In Standard 6 [Grade 8] he joined the organisation National Youth Action [NYA], which was the first non-racial schools’ organisation that agitated for fair and equal education for all,” says Lance.
Cape Town academic David Scher also remembers Bloch from their school days at Westerford High School. “There were so many Blochs that they were called ‘Blochlets’,” he joked. “Joining the NYA was really brave, as school principals disapproved of it, and it was unheard of for schoolchildren to be politically involved.”
As a University of Cape Town student, Graeme got involved with the National Union of South African Students and End Conscription Campaign. He was detained and arrested by apartheid security forces in 1976, and was “banned” from 1976 to 1981.
Scher recalls, “At the age of 20, he [Graeme] was beaten up in detention by the infamous [Warrant Officer Hernus JP] Spyker van Wyk, who brought his children along to watch the interrogation.”
Says Lance, “Being detained and on the run scarred him a bit. It made him more nervous, but also more determined. He was extremely brave.
“When he was banned for five years, he wasn’t supposed to be in touch with more than one person at a time, but he used to break that law,” Lance says. “He would come to family meals, and the Security Branch would be sitting outside the house. Sometimes, my mother would go out and give them coffee!”
Scher reconnected with Graeme when they both worked in the history department at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) around 1986. “He was part of the temporary staff. He couldn’t get a permanent position because he was so often on the run. I remember once I was staying with my in-laws. One evening, there was a knock on the door and there stood a stranger. I didn’t recognise that it was Graeme in disguise! He had come to collect exam scripts to mark.
“As a lecturer, he couldn’t be seen on campus in case he was arrested,” says Scher. “He would say that it was a ‘soulless experience’ not to be able to have a permanent academic job – he felt it keenly. Such was his sacrifice. And the students at UWC really adored him. He came to the university straight after he was released from detention, and they gave him a massive reception as he addressed them.”
“Education was really his passion,” says Lance. “He inspired a whole generation of youth.”
Former Finance Minister Trevor Manuel elaborates on this. “In the mid-1980s, Graeme ran education programmes for children who have since gone on to do amazing things in life. He gave them vision, determination, and hope. Many of them attribute where they are today to Graeme ‘unlocking’ their potential. That was Graeme – education wasn’t just academic, it was a deeply felt and passionate thing.”
Doron Isaacs, a founder of Equal Education (EE), remembers how “Graeme was an EE board member from 2010 for two and half years through the organisation’s most intense period of campaigning. What I most admired in Graeme was how seriously he took the school-going activists within EE, how he listened to them and engaged them, almost treating them as his leaders. He retained an instinctive radicalism acquired in his youth, but what he most admired in young activists was conscientiousness, discipline, hunger for knowledge, and patient organising. In spite of his close ties to the ANC [African National Congress], he never wavered in backing EE to confront the government and its leaders.”
Manuel continues, “Graeme was willing to do even the most menial tasks. When we launched the UDF [United Democratic Front] in August 1983, he landed up making soup. I don’t think his soup would have made MasterChef, but he did it because someone needed to do it.”
It was in the UDF that Graeme met his soulmate and future wife, Cheryl Carolus, who would later become the ANC’s deputy secretary general. Many describe how they complemented each other – Graeme was more subdued while Cheryl is more extroverted. Together, they were a force of nature.
“Another thing I remember is that all the mothers of other activists adored him,” says Manuel. “All of them, without exception, had the most unbelievable affection for Graeme. And being invited by so many families for supper made him the envy of his friends. Many of his networks were built like that.
“Whenever I visited his house, the most common feature in all their photos was laughter. He was a radiant, happy individual. The illness took away his ability to speak, but even as recently as a month ago, he would laugh at jokes. Notwithstanding the fact that he couldn’t talk, his joie de vivre wasn’t dimmed.”
Former Constitutional Court Judge Albie Sachs remembers how Bloch played a key role in welcoming him back to Cape Town after 24 years in exile in May 1990. “My first wish was to climb Table Mountain. I got the message out that after I landed at the airport, I wanted to go to my mom and have tea with her, then put on my takkies and climb my beloved mountain.
“But I needed someone to escort me. My arm had been blown off, and I wasn’t sure I could make it. I was told that comrade Graeme Bloch was the ANC’s ‘exercise person’, and had put together a team of comrades to join us,” Sachs says. “He took me up Constantia Nek, we walked past the reservoirs … I still remember the exact route after two decades … down Kasteel’s Poort, along the pipe track, and finally arriving at Kloof Nek corner. I felt triumphant. I wasn’t sure I could even do it, but he made it happen. You couldn’t have found a more gracious, warm, and generous person. He loved the mountain, and he loved freedom.”
Lost Barmitzvah boy finally finds his way home
When Stephen “Sugar” Segerman started searching for the Barmitzvah boy whose photograph was on his mantlepiece, he didn’t imagine he would find out from someone half way around the globe that the boy had once lived a few houses away from him.
Last week, the SA Jewish Report described how Segerman – who once searched for and found the musician Sixto Rodriguez
– was now trying to identify the boy in a photograph he found at the Milnerton Market in Cape Town a few years ago.
Within a few days of publication and the story spreading around the world, the identity of the barmi boy as the late Arnold Kleinberger was revealed. Segerman had an emotional meeting with Kleinberger’s daughter, Aura Zartz, who lives in Cape Town, on Tuesday (13 April) this week.
“In the days following the story appearing in the SA Jewish Report, it was shared all over the world, judging from the enthusiastic responses I immediately received,” Segerman said.
“I started receiving a lot of emails from people who thought they recognised the barmi boy. One said, ‘My name is Cedric Reingold. I grew up in Highlands Estate and matriculated from Herzlia in 1978. I recently read the article, and recognised the person in the picture. His name is Arnold Kleinberger. He was in our third-grade year and if I’m not mistaken, left [Herzlia] sometime thereafter.’”
Speaking to the SA Jewish Report from Chicago, Reingold said that he was scrolling through the online version of the paper, when he saw the photograph and immediately recognised Arnold. He then confirmed it with others in his matric year Facebook group. “But actually, I was 100% sure, even though he wasn’t at Herzlia for long [he then went to Cape Town High]. I can’t explain it – I just knew.”
Said Segerman, “I was elated. I then started an online search, and found that Arnold Kleinberger was born in 1960, which meant his Barmitzvah would have been in 1973, fitting with the timeline. Sadly, he passed away at the young age of 37 in 1997. I found a photo of his tombstone from the Cape Town Chevrah Kadisha website, and studied it to find any clues.
“It said that he was mourned by his family, but only his mother Sadie was named. I found out she had passed away in 2015. Her tombstone said that she was mourned by her daughters Marlene and Anita, son-in-law Maurice, and granddaughters Nadine and Aura.”
He searched the name Kleinberger on Facebook, and found a Doré Kleinberger, whose mother had been Eva Wolovitz. That led Segerman to Wolovitz’s tombstone, where again, he saw the name Aura. Further googling lead to the birth announcement of Aura and Adam Zartz’s son on the Herzlia Alumni Association site.
At this point, Segerman turned to his daughter, Natalia, and son-in-law, Ryan Rabinowitz, who were visiting from London, and asked if they knew them.
“Ryan looked at me with great surprise and told me that not only did he know Adam very well, but they had sat next to each other at shul that very morning,” said Segerman. “He immediately contacted Adam, and we spoke to his wife, Aura, who confirmed that the barmi boy was her late father, Arnold.
“She said that Doré was her mother, and her aunts were the late Anita Shenker and Marlene Kleinberger. Marlene had lived in Milnerton and passed away a few years before. Anita had cleaned out Marlene’s house and sent numerous items to the Milnerton Market.
“Aura was nine when her father passed away. She confirmed that his Barmitzvah was on 13 January 1973, and she had recently been given his Barmitzvah book by Anita’s husband, Maurice Shenker, which contained the same photo I had. She then told me that her father had grown up in Oranjezicht.”
Segerman and his wife have lived in Oranjezicht for the past 24 years, and it turns out they live just four houses away from where the Barmitzvah boy grew up.
In addition, Arnold’s parents’ domestic worker, the late Lettie Gal, would sometimes work for the Segermans. This is just one of many other coincidences linking all the people connected to the story.
Zartz, whose first-born child, Allegra, is named after Arnold, said that her father was always “elusive” to her. Her parents divorced when she was three, and she didn’t see her father much in the years before his death, which were marked with difficulties.
She said that when Segerman phoned, she felt like she was on some kind of ‘Candid Camera’ show – it didn’t feel real. In some ways, she felt heartbroken that her father’s photo had landed up in a stranger’s home, “but then I felt a huge amount of comfort that he was so close to where he grew up”.
She spent much of her childhood in her late grandmother’s home, and feels closely connected to it. Segerman emphasised that he has always felt very protective of the photograph, which meant a lot to Zartz.
Her mother, Doré, is the last remaining Kleinberger. She said Arnold’s father, Ernest, came to South Africa from Germany in 1936 when he was 13. “He had his Barmitzvah on the boat!” His mother, Sadie, was born in South Africa. She understands that Arnold was quite a “troubled child”, but also had many happy moments in his parents’ home and general goods stores, where he would help himself to chocolate.
“Their home was always warm and welcoming – a central meeting place that people gravitated towards,” Kleinberger said. “Arnold had a tough exterior, but was the kindest person. I think he had a difficult time in the army. But he loved Formula One racing and motorbikes, and would time keep at Killarney. He also loved to braai and surf. For our honeymoon, we went up the coast with his surfboard.”
Segerman was deeply moved by these revelations and in the days after finding all of this out, he went on his regular walking route, which passed the house that Kleinberger grew up in.
“Today my walk was different – more special and emotional than ever before. I stopped at both gates and thought about Arnold and all that has happened these past few days.” He has decided that he will say Kaddish for Arnold on his yahrzeit.
Zartz said that when Segerman first called, “I thought, ‘What is my father trying to tell me?’ And when I heard Stephen say he lived in Forest Road, I realised that he was just trying to make his way home. I don’t want to keep the photograph. I give it to Stephen with a happy heart. This story means that my dad is exactly where he needs to be.”
Correction: In the 9 April edition of the SA Jewish Report, we wrote that Stephen Segerman’s Mabu Vinyl store had closed. This is an error – it has not closed but has moved to new premises at 285 Long Street, Cape Town. We regret the error.
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