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All quiet on the university front

South African universities began opening their doors this week, with the entire nation waiting in anticipation to see what happens. This follows an 18-month-long period of intermittent chaos during the #feesMustFall protests, which culminated when the universities finally ended their 2016 academic year.

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Lifestyle/Community

ANT KATZ

Parents, students, scholars, university staff, faculty and management… are still holding their breath, should there this year be a repeat of last year’s violence. So far so good.

Would campuses be safer spaces this year? Would militants in the name of academic freedom  be allowed back into the same places and communities that they vandalised last November?

However, when most of the country’s 17 public universities opened on Monday, there was nary an incident. Both Wits and UCT ended on a high note – reporting very successful results in 2016.

“Who knows what the next couple of weeks will bring?” David Rozen of Pretoria told Jewish Report on Sunday. David and his wife, Lore Dana, are the parents of University of Pretoria (Tuks) student Gary Rozen, who last year found himself under “a lot of pressure”.

“Tuks closed for three weeks and we weren’t sure if he would be able to write exams,” said father David. This Monday, their younger son, Zach, started his first year.

The Rozens have nothing but praise for Tuks’ management of the “student uprisings” last November But they have clearly discussed their dilemma at length and the boys have plans to do their post-graduate studies abroad.

But the potential of renewed student unrest remains the elephant in the room.

Wits Vice-Chancellor Professor Adam Habib, told the 6 500 first-year students at their “Welcome Day” last week that, “while Wits supports the rights of students to peaceful protest, these protests should not violate the rights of those who wish to work and learn”.

Habib told Jewish Report on Tuesday that he did not anticipate any protests at this stage, “given the number of concessions that we have made to enable the majority of students to register”. “However, should any protests develop, we have contingency plans in place to ensure that the academic programme continues unhindered.”

Habib told his new students that it pleased him that “Wits students are active social citizens and they leave their mark on society,” pointing out that the #FeesMustFall campaign was started by Wits students.

This, said Habib, had achieved the goal of bringing to government’s attention “the underfunding of universities by government over the last two decades”. In 10 days, he said, “the students placed student funding on the national agenda – a feat that vice-chancellors had been unable to achieve over 10 years”.

Another issue that has troubled university communities is the question of “troublemakers” who were denied access to campus last year.

 

At UCT, Max Price sits vice-chancellor, says that his university is putting the final touches to a new structure to deal with these individual cases (of unrest) in future. He agrees that some of what he calls the “disruptors” against whom UCT “obtained interdicts” and even expelled some for criminal activities last year, “became the centre of conflict”.

In the end, he says, “we had to weigh up not finishing the academic year and losing exams for 20 000 students, against dropping the disciplinary cases”. The cases were dropped.

Prof Habib told Jewish Report that Wits “is dealing with each student matter individually, in line with the university’s policies and processes”.

Rafi Friedman, who completed an honours degree at Wits last year, says there is an expectation among students that there will be “some sort of trouble” on campuses this year – but much less of it.

He remains upbeat that the authorities can turn things around in the next year or two because “they have to!” He believes the momentum of the #FeesMustFall) movement has broken down somewhat.

“I know of people in grades 10 and 11 who are doing two or three A-level subjects rather than continuing with their IEB (local) matric” and others who are availing themselves of the option to write the American SAT exams through self-study.

Private universities in South Africa (such as Boston) are proliferating and offering degree courses backed by the University of South Africa (Unisa) – which would otherwise have been a home-study option.

However, says Rafi, a degree from a private university still doesn’t compare to Wits or UCT when competing in the job market.

The free high school in Israel Programme, Na’ale, is booming with10 South Africans having gone over to complete their high school there in the past 10 months.

It seems that, in general, Jewish students and parents are remaining loyal to public universities – while discussing back-up plans and alternatives if the SA public university system were to break down.

As far as the SA Union of Jewish Students is concerned, Dean Weil, the newly-elected chairman of Wits SAUJS told Jewish Report that there had been no signs of anything untoward on the Wits campus on the first day of study this Monday.

Last week’s orientation week had gone well, he said, although the university’s computer had had a glitch and so they are still processing the numbers of members who had signed up. He expects them to be high.

“O-week (Orientation Week) was a great success,” he said.” We changed the way we interacted with new students this year by asking them what they would be looking to us for – as an organisation – and we have been following up with them telephonically.”

SAUJS campus committees and their national executive are going on a hadracha weekend to meet together and plan for the year ahead, says Weil. As UCT only opens next month, an interim committee has been formed and they will be participating.

Some of the students’ big-ticket issues have been solved. Others can easily be solved if there are open-minded stakeholders around the bargaining table. Still others will be more difficult and take more time.

But, on the fringe, are the noisiest “student” demands that emanate from political groupings looking to be disruptive. These demands are unrealistic (like, for example, free education for all) and cannot be solved. Both Dr Price and Prof Habib are adopting a take-no-prisoners approach to these issues. 

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Yochanan’s gamble: the controversial move that saved Judaism

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Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai, known as the father of rabbinic Judaism, saved Judaism from complete and utter destruction during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. However, his methods weren’t without controversy. He was crafty, practical, and pragmatic, and history has questioned his behaviour ever since.

Limmud@Home on 22 August 2021 featured Marc Katz, the author and rabbi at Temple Ner Tamid in New Jersey, United States, who discussed Ben Zakkai’s controversial gamble that saved Judaism, and the lessons that can be learned from it.

The zealots, a group of religious fanatics in Jerusalem, wanted to fight the Romans. When the sages refused to engage in battle, the zealots burned wheat, deliberately causing starvation to make the people desperate and have no other option but to fight.

“Show me a method so that I will be able to leave the city, and it’s possible that through this, there will be some small salvation,” Ben Zakkai told Abba Sikkara, the leader of the zealots.

Heeding Sikkara’s advice, Ben Zakkai pretended to be dead. In a coffin, he could possibly travel outside the city to seek a solution with the Romans.

Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua successfully carried Ben Zakkai past the guards, who were of the faction of the zealots, by telling them that they were burying the coffin outside the city.

When Ben Zakkai reached the Roman camp, he spoke to Roman leader Vespasian. Ben Zakkai helped Vespasian cure his swollen feet. Vespasian offered something in return, and Ben Zakkai asked for certain Jewish lives to be spared and doctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok.

Why didn’t he ask the Romans to spare Jerusalem? He maintained that Vespasian might not do that much for him, and there wouldn’t be even this small amount of salvation. Therefore, he made only a modest request in the hope that he would receive at least that much.

Katz said several lessons could be learned from this story.

He drew a comparison to US President Abraham Lincoln at the time of the American Civil War in the 1860s, who freed slaves.

“One of the things he’s famous for is that he surrounded himself with people who disagreed with him in order to build the best coalition and understand that he didn’t have all the right views in a time of discord,” said Katz. “So, many of his secretaries – like his treasury secretary, his war secretary – were people who were actually his political rivals but he brought them in because it was really important for him to listen to them. It was pragmatic because he knew the social capital he was going to gain from it. It was also hopeful because he wasn’t so caught in his ways that he couldn’t hear them out or heed their warnings. That is exactly what Ben Zakkai is doing. Not only is he creating this plot of land where he is going to save Judaism, but he is the kind of guy who tends to think about politics in the way he governs.”

Another lesson is to try to seek compromises, just like Ben Zakkai did with Sikkara.

A further lesson is to have love and kindness, not regret and hatred. Katz discussed what happened when Ben Zakkai was leaving Jerusalem with Yehoshua, and they witnessed the destruction of the Temple. “Don’t be bitter, my son, for we have another form of atonement which is as great, and this is [an] act of love and kindness [gemilut hasadim],” Ben Zakkai told Yehoshua.

An additional lesson is not to be afraid of people. If they kill you, you won’t be dead for eternity as there is life after death. But the supreme king of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, lives and endures forever and all-time, and if he kills you, you are dead for eternity.

“Yochanan doesn’t know if he is going to heaven or hell,” said Katz. “I truly believe that’s because he doesn’t know whether he made the right call or not – he doesn’t know if the pragmatic decision he made was better than going for broke and asking for Jerusalem to be saved.”

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The dispersal of the Bukharian Jews

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The story of the Bukharian Jews, a community with deep roots in Central Asia, is sadly coming to an end, but the community’s legacy lives on in the United States and Israel, where most of the remaining Bukharian Jews now live.

Uzbekistan-born Bukharian Jew, Ruben Shimonov, told of this little known Jewish group which emanates mostly from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan, countries in the heart of the Asian continent.

Speaking to a virtual audience via Zoom at Limmud@Home last Sunday, 22 August, Shimonov said the different layers of culture, cuisine, music, and language in the region were an amalgamation of all the different cultures of Central Asia, and were also reflected in the small but deeply-rooted community of Bukharian Jews.

The Bukharian Jewish story begins with the Babylonian conquest of the ancient land of Israel, Judea, and subsequent exile of Jews east of the land of Israel to other regions of the Babylonian Empire, namely present-day Iraq and Iran.

The Babylonian Empire was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC. “Under the Achaemenid Empire, the king was a more benevolent king and he allowed Jews to return to rebuild Jerusalem and the Beit HaMikdash,” said Shimonov. “But many Jews stayed as they now felt safe and secure under this new reign and moved even farther east of this new large Achaemenid Empire. This, folks, was Central Asia.”

Shimonov believes that the Bukharian Jews were more integrated with the local non-Jewish communities in Central Asia than, for example, the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe.

“Even though Bukharian Jews for a large part of their history lived in quarters [maḥalla], there was constant interaction with the dominant societies amongst which they lived,” said Shimonov. “For example, the shashmaqam musical tradition is influenced by Sufi Islam, but many Bukharian Jews became the gatekeepers of this tradition.”

According to Shimonov, there are 250 000 Bukharian Jews in the world. Most of them now live in Israel or the United States, primarily in the New York City borough of Queens.

“In Uzbekistan, there are fewer than a thousand Bukharian Jews left – mainly elderly folk who are staying behind because it’s harder for them to emigrate,” said Shimonov. “Jews in Uzbekistan are highly protected; their safety is preserved. And Jews do go and visit Central Asia, including Uzbekistan, where there is one kosher restaurant and a couple of synagogues. But our story is quickly coming to an end in our place of origin.”

In the Tajikistan city of Khujand, where Bukharian Jews once enjoyed a rich communal life, the last remaining Jew, Jura Abaev, died in January this year. Zablon Simintov, a carpet trader who is the last remaining Jew in Afghanistan, is reportedly safe as the country comes under the control of the Taliban.

Shimonov, who emigrated from Uzbekistan three years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, said the main reason for the low numbers today was the struggle of the Bukharian Jews living in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

“State-sanctioned antisemitism and dispossession or marginalisation of Jews was part of that story even though there were more ups than downs. And then, the subsequent new instability of the newly formed independent republics – whenever new countries are formed after the colonial past there is more often than not a lot of political, social, and economic instability,” he said.

“As a democratic minority, we felt that even more. So, the urgency to leave was clear and present. In the decade of the late eighties to mid-nineties, we went from having the majority of our community living in this place where we had lived for centuries to the majority of our community living in a new diaspora. In Uzbekistan, the real impetus to leave was more about everything I mentioned than antisemitism coming from our Muslim neighbours.”

“Our Muslim neighbours were our friends, and we baked bread with them,” Shimonov said. “This is different to Jews coming from the Arab world, where Arab nationalism and Zionism came to a head in a way that the Jews were sadly caught in the crossfire.”

In contemporary times, Uzbekistan-born billionaire Lev Avnerovich Leviev and Israeli Dorrit Moussaieff are two of the Bukharian Jews who have made an impact. Known as the “king of diamonds”, Leviev annually sent large quantities of Passover food to Chabad emissaries in the Commonwealth of Independent States to distribute to Jews in these communities. Moussaieff, the former First Lady of Iceland, promoted Icelandic culture and artistic productions in the international arena.

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Shabbat Around The World beams out from Jozi

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More than 75 devices around the globe logged in to Beit Luria’s World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) Shabbat Around the World programme on Friday, 15 January.

Whether it was breakfast time in California, tea time in Europe, or time to break challah in Johannesburg, participants logged in to take part in Beit Luria’s Kabbalat Shabbat service.

Among those participating were Rabbi Sergio Bergman, the president of the WUPJ; chairperson Carole Sterling; and Rabbi Nathan Alfred, the head of international relations. Singers Tulla Eckhart and Brian Joffe performed songs from a global array of artists, along with Toto’s Africa to add a little local flair to the service. After kiddish was said and bread was broken, Rabbi Bergman thanked Beit Luria for hosting the WUPJ. The shul looks forward to more collaborations with its global friends in the future.

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