SA-born hero’s murder resonates 52 years later
Fifty-two years ago this week, student and Israeli army paratrooper Edward “Eddie” Joffe, who had recently made aliyah with his family from South Africa, was senselessly murdered by terrorists when 5kg of explosives hidden in a biscuit tin at a Jerusalem supermarket exploded. It killed him instantly, together with his friend, Leon Kanner, who had recently made aliyah from Uruguay.
More than half a century later, the tragedy still resonates through the generations. “Our lives were forever changed,” his brother, Harold Joffe, told the SA Jewish Report this week from his home in Ra’anana.
“My mother went white overnight, and got diabetes from the shock. My father was shattered and died at the age of 64. At the far-too-young age of 21, Edward was laid to rest in Har Hamenuchot Yerushala’im.
“He was strong, handsome, smart, a decent and fantastic young man. Full of hope, ambition, and plans. Edward, where would you have been today? Who would you have married? How many other cousins would our children have had?” Joffe asks.
These “what ifs” show the heart breaking ramifications of terrorism, and the thousand questions it generates about whether things could have turned out differently. While it may feel like something that happened long ago and in a different time and place, the story will forever be linked to South Africa, where Joffe grew up.
“Edward completed his schooling at SACS in Cape Town in 1964. He did his military service in South Africa, and at the beginning of 1966, my parents, sister, and Edward came on aliyah. He joined the garin at Kibbutz Tzora, and then went to Gedud 50 of Nahal,” says his brother.
“Edward was known for his outstanding physical abilities coupled with gentleness and a smile. A friend related to us ‘there was no hike in which he did not lend a helping hand to the weaker ones; there was no task that he did not accept without a smile’.
“Eddie didn’t expect any prizes, but he was unable to hide his pride at being a fighter in the paratroopers,” his brother says. To a friend in South Africa, he wrote, “I must admit that this is the greatest pleasure of my life. I don’t know if the fame of the Israeli paratroopers has reached you, but I have now joined their ranks. I now wear the red beret known for its glory, and on my breast are found the famous wings.”
“At the outbreak of the Six-Day War, Eddie found himself on the flank of Northern Sinai. He was injured in the neck by shrapnel which missed his jugular vein by a small fraction of an inch,” Joffe says.
A friend wrote, “I knew him as a soldier and a leader who never stopped smiling and infecting those around him with his joy of life. I saw him wounded, and I picture him thus: Eddie, the tall and powerful paratrooper, wounded with blood flowing from him, but his mouth open with a wide smile.”
The late Joffe wrote to a friend from the hospital, “It was an honour to have fought at the front and while blood flowed from me [I was conscious all the time], I thought that even if I were to die, it would have been worthwhile.”
He was injured again during his service, during the Karameh offensive in March 1968. Towards the end of October 1968, he was accepted at Hebrew University. He moved to Jerusalem to start his studies in the faculty of agriculture, and befriended Kanner. They attended the same lectures, and eventually boarded together in the same small apartment.
“On Friday, 21 February 1969, they went to the Supersol in Rehov Agron Jerusalem to make some purchases for Shabbat and an upcoming excursion. As they approached the meat counter, an explosive device – a biscuit tin filled with 5kg of dynamite – which had been placed in the store by two cowardly female Arab terrorists, was detonated, and Eddie and Leon were both killed instantly,” says his brother. A huge funeral in Jerusalem followed, attended by Yigal Allon and many other Israeli dignitaries.
“We were and are very private about this life-changing episode,” says Joffe. “However, in May 2014, my niece saw an article regarding the trial in the United States of Rasmea Odeh, Edward’s murderer, who had been found guilty of immigration fraud after serving 10 years in an Israeli jail and then being freed during one of the many prisoner swaps of the 1970s. All we wanted was closure. Unfortunately, the matter continued with extensive and mainly anti-Israel and pro-Odeh publicity, until she was finally deported to Jordan at the end of 2017. I’m grateful that my mother never lived to experience this vile tirade.
“Stripping Edward and Leon of their lives didn’t chase us away, and it did nothing to further peace. Edward will always live on in our hearts, and we will forever keep his memory alive,” he says.
Like Joffe, Kanner’s family also made aliyah, and he joined them after studying abroad. In November 1968, he started agriculture studies at the Hebrew University, where he met Joffe. He was 20 when he was senselessly killed. After the bombing, the family developed photographs from his camera that was found at the scene. One photo shows a smiling Kanner with the Jerusalem hills behind him and the world at his feet.
A Joffe family friend, Michael Jankelowitz, launched a campaign for the municipality and the supermarket to erect a memorial plaque, but today there is still nothing to commemorate the tragedy that happened there. “There is a park across the street. It would be appropriate to place a memorial there,” says Joffe. “It should have been done.”
Most of the Joffe family live in Israel. “My parents are buried next to Edward. My mother was extremely Zionist, and the terror attack never broke her Zionism, but it broke her spirit,” says Joffe.
Two weeks before she died, on 23 September 2009, their mother, Roslyn Joffe, recorded a video saying goodbye to her family, and spoke of the impact of her son’s death on her. “I’ve been blessed with wonderful children, grandchildren, and fantastic great grandchildren. Not everyone has that blessing in life. What’s overshadowed all my pleasure has been the loss of Edward. I could never get over that. It’s overshadowed all my joy.”
Jewish activists take on alleged Hermanus rapist
Two Johannesburg Jewish gender-abuse activists are at the centre of a battle to try stop an alleged rapist from preying on more young women travellers in the seaside town of Hermanus in the Western Cape.
Wendy Hendler and Rozanne Sack run a non-profit organisation called Koleinu, which offers a helpline to victims of abuse in the community.
Earlier this year, it was brought to their attention that a man accused of sexual harassment and rape was working as a surf instructor and owner of a guesthouse and surf school in the popular coastal town renowned for whale watching. The man, whose name is known to the SA Jewish Report, hasn’t appeared in court or been formally charged, and for this reason, he cannot be named. He has vehemently denied all allegations against him.
Said Hendler, “Koleinu received information from a caller to our helpline informing us about victims she knew of. She was advised to put them in touch with us as soon as possible.”
So began a mammoth task of gathering information and supporting victims to expose him.
In the course of their investigation, Hendler and Sack have taken statements from two international female tourists to South Africa who claim they were raped by him. One was allegedly raped in February last year during her stay at his guesthouse and surf school, the other seven years ago in Cape Town while she was a foreign student.
With the help of abuse activist Luke Lamprecht and attorneys specialising in the field, Hendler and Sack have compiled information on the man’s alleged inappropriate sexual behaviour and harassment, which they say spans several years.
Following a recent article in Daily Maverick highlighting the women’s horrific ordeals, news of the man’s behaviour has shocked the Hermanus townsfolk. The local surfing community held an anti-gender-based violence demonstration last week near the Hermanus Magistrates Court, where all concerned citizens of the town were invited.
Although the man’s hostel and surf school has an excellent 9.1 rating on Booking.com with some glowing reviews, Tripadvisor last week posted a message saying that it had been made aware of recent media reports or events concerning the property “which may not be reflected in reviews found on this listing”.
“Accordingly, you may wish to perform additional research for information about this property when making your travel plans,” the site said.
The two victims, whose names are being withheld to protect their identity, are grateful to Koleinu.
“When I left South Africa, I was traumatised and in denial,” said Melanie (not her real name), “Koleinu has given me hope that other women won’t become victims of his abuse. Its comfort and guidance has been wonderful. I feel that in some way, I have played a small part in stopping him.”
Melanie, who lives in the United States, and Julia (also not her real name) from the United Kingdom, connected for the first time on social media after Melanie reached out to fellow travellers a year ago online in a bid to find people who may have experienced a similar ordeal.
“I had never looked him up before, and as soon as I saw his Instagram page and all the pictures of him with young women, it was like being hit by a lightning bolt,” she said.
She direct-messaged women from the surf school’s Instagram page, posting how she had met the owner of the surf school when she was 20 years old studying abroad in South Africa six years ago. After he befriended her and showed her around Cape Town, she wrote, “On our third meeting, he drugged and aggressively raped me in his truck outside of a bar. It took me years to process this, to actually realise what happened and get over it, but I was in denial at the time and didn’t press charges. I’m reaching out to anyone who has ever associated with him and inquiring if this behaviour is a pattern. Has he done anything to you? Or anyone you know?”
To her astonishment, she was flooded with responses by women from all over the world, including countries like Israel and Mexico, alleging inappropriate sexual behaviour and harassment.
One of the women was Julia, who said he had raped her in a bedroom at his Hermanus guest accommodation in February last year.
The man has denied any involvement, telling the SA Jewish Report, “Those allegations are completely twisted, false, and damaging. I would never drug anyone. It’s an extremely hurtful allegation.”
He said he was talking to attorneys in Cape Town with a view to suing for defamation.
“I would like to add that these allegations were started by a girl seven years ago with no connection to my business who messaged thousands of my Instagram followers telling them I date drugged her.”
In relation to the other victims’ allegations, he said, “Some allegations are from a rival business owner in my road who wants me out of the picture. Proper scandal.”
Hendler and Sack are hoping that the publicity will encourage other victims to come forward and alert tourists and locals about the possible danger he presents.
“We need a local victim to come forward and be willing to lay criminal charges against him,” said Sack, “In this way, a legal case can be instituted. It’s difficult – if not impossible – for the two women to lay charges against him while they don’t live in this country.”
Although the two tourists’ ordeals differ, Hendler said the alleged perpetrator had preyed on their vulnerabilities.
“These types of abusers often have a radar for people’s vulnerabilities, and they zone in and demolish their victims’ defences,” she said.
From dozens of posts online, the man openly body shames women, and has been described as a sex pest and pervert.
One Johannesburg teenager who met him during her brief stay at his surf school told the SA Jewish Report that he was “weird and creepy”.
“From the minute I met him, I felt uncomfortable. He was dodgy from the start,” she said.
One local 22-year-old resident said that on two separate occasions, once in Cape Town the other in Hermanus, he had made her feel very uncomfortable.
“I told him more than three times to stop touching me, but after expressing that he would, he still continued being inappropriate towards me and I felt I was being sexually harassed. I believe he needs to be stopped as soon as possible.”
Said Hendler, “Violent crime against women in this country generally isn’t reported. It’s only by empowering victims to find their voice and join in support of one another that we can hope to make any kind of change. We implore any other victims of this man to follow the example of these two courageous young ladies.”
Stoney sign demarcates graves at Westpark
Westpark Cemetery in Johannesburg has opened a new Jewish section at the top of the cemetery – called section E – in which only “flat tombstones and standard Jewish emblems will be permitted”, according to a notice posted by the Chevrah Kadisha Burial Society on the fence.
The instruction about the tombstones and symbols is on what used to be the east boundary fence of the Jewish cemetery and is now a clear demarcation line between the “old” section with upright tombstones, and the newly opened section, which allows only flat slabs or tombstones not more than 0.5m high.
The change comes as Jewish graves around the country have been vandalised, particularly in country communities, the most recent incidents occurring in Oudtshoorn in August 2020, when 33 gravestones were vandalised, and Bloemfontein, where 125 gravestones were smashed. In those cases, work has been done to repair and relay the upright tombstones flat at the expense of local Jewish organisations and families.
But the new rules at Westpark aren’t primarily motivated by vandalism, although “future vandalism” is a factor, according to a member of the Chevrah Kadisha who wanted to remain anonymous.
“A number of families don’t live in South Africa any longer – COVID-19 has made this particularly clear to us,” he said. “Therefore, there’s nobody to maintain the tombstones if they fall over. Sometimes, we flip them over on their backs, but sometimes they fall and smash the grave bed. If that happens, it can cost about R20 000 to fix.”
This issue was highlighted by a tornado in Johannesburg a few years ago which took down about 12 tombstones, he said.
“We try to trace the families to do repairs, but often we aren’t able to.” In that case, the grave is left broken, as the Chev doesn’t have the budget to maintain graves.
Another reason for the change is that the new section E is “far away from anywhere”, he said, so it’s more secure to have low tombstones as “vagabonds hide behind vertical tombstones to attack mourners”.
Tombstones are fast becoming a luxury few can afford. In the United States, the Jewish Cemetery Association of Massachusetts, the largest Jewish cemetery association in North America, changed its rules to prevent mourners – even those who could afford a gravestone – from putting up a tombstone if they hadn’t paid for a funeral, according to an article in The Forward published in 2016. In those cases, only a small flat stone with room for some words would be allowed “in the interest of fairness”.
South African stonemasons say that the cost for flat tombstones is actually higher than upright ones as a full slab can be mandatory with a flat grave whereas upright tombstones often don’t include a full slab. But they point out that horizontal tombstones are better – and fast being adopted, particularly in Cape country communities – because there is “no fear of them being stolen”.
A rabbi closely associated with the Chev, who also wanted to remain anonymous, said that while they “try not to be too dogmatic”, the prescription is a maximum tombstone height of 0.5m.
It was easier to introduce the new prescriptions at Westpark upon opening a completely new Jewish section, the rabbi said, so the demarcation would be clear. He has no idea when – or even if – the enormous fence dividing the two Jewish sections will be removed.
Although all Jewish graves in Westpark are required to have a Jewish inscription including the Hebrew name of the deceased and the name of the parent/s, the situation is trickier when it comes to emblems, the rabbi said.
The aim of the rule about “only standard Jewish symbols” is to exclude “secular symbols” from tombstones – such as soccer balls, the rabbi says. Even Kohanim hands and Shabbos candles are frowned upon, but he insists that overall, these rules are intended to keep things “tasteful”.
“A tombstone is a holy monument,” he said, pointing out that the uniform look of a Jewish cemetery comes straight from a decree from our sages that tombstones be standardised. In fact, during interviews for this story, it was pointed out that Westpark has a rule that all gravestones be made out of grey granite, although the rabbi said that there was “no rule regarding what stone is used for tombstones”.
“Death is the great equaliser,” he said. “We shouldn’t make a grave stand out. Hashem will decide who is truly great.”
SA Jewry’s pandemic response unique and robust, experts say
The South African Jewish community’s response to the pandemic has been singled out as unique, efficient, and robust in an academic paper that tracks how the community galvanised itself from March to October 2020.
From the start of hard lockdown, “It became apparent to me that our response as a community was unusually speedy, pro-active, and comprehensive,” says Leah Gilbert on what motivated her to write the paper. “I was impressed with the fact that we used the expertise available among us to inform the community. In addition, the quick emergence of support programmes for people who were infected was unique.”
Gilbert is emeritus professor of Health Sociology at the University of the Witwatersrand, where she taught and researched health and disease in the social context for 35 years. Her daughter and fellow author of the article, Shirli Gilbert, is professor of Modern Jewish History at University College London, and academic director of the Sir Martin Gilbert Learning Centre.
The article has already been accessed almost 1 000 times online, a high number for an academic study of this kind. The authors hope it will be useful for understanding communal responses to the pandemic in South Africa and in other communities worldwide.
Of all the Jewish communities in the world, why did they decide to focus on this one? “During the first lockdown in Johannesburg, observing through my professional lens my society’s relationship to health and disease, I had the idea of documenting our community’s response to the pandemic,” says the elder Gilbert.
“It began with the first SA Jewish Report webinar with medical experts, and the subsequent dissemination and sharing of knowledge and activities,” she says. “I approached my daughter, whose research focuses on the South African Jewish community, and we started collecting relevant material.
“The community’s response to the pandemic spanned the gamut from physical and mental health to religious observance, home schooling, financial relief, food aid, and social-welfare support,” Gilbert says. “The common theme among the initiatives was the efficiency with which resources were mobilised, something possible only because of a robust and highly centralised pre-existing communal infrastructure and strong networks of social capital.”
In their paper, they note that, “The unique response of the South African Jewish community to COVID-19 must be understood within the larger context of the relationship between Jews and health. Scholarship suggests that Jews have a heightened concern for health relative to other groups.”
They also write that “unlike other diaspora communities, in South Africa, a great deal of emphasis has historically been placed on communal unity”. Another unique factor is that “following the transition [to democracy], communal investment in outreach has expanded significantly”.
“Taken together, the centrality of health, robust communal infrastructure, and strong community social capital against the background of the Jewish community’s particular positioning in post-apartheid South Africa helps to account for the uniquely co-ordinated, energetic, and multipronged nature of the community’s pandemic response.”
However, the community also faced many challenges during the pandemic. “The ageing nature of the Jewish community in South Africa meant that the percentage of vulnerable people was relatively high,” says the elder Gilbert.
“This higher risk profile helps to explain the motivation for the quick and powerful mobilisation of resources. There was some friction around the question of how support for Jewish communal welfare fitted alongside South African Jews’ commitment to broader South African society. On the whole, however, evidence suggests that community support for both ‘inreach’ and ‘outreach’ initiatives has been generous and widespread.
“The pandemic has also been difficult for this community in particular because of the extent to which Jewish families are dispersed across the world, which meant long periods of time for families to be apart.”
Another challenge has been resources, especially financial. As they write, “despite the robustness of the community’s infrastructure and its still considerable resources, there are concerns about its long-term health and prospects. On 19 June , the Chev [Chevrah Kadisha] was forced for the first time in its 132-year history to call for emergency financial support. Its work in both residential care and financial assistance – sectors especially impacted by the pandemic – left it severely exposed, and with almost no state support and overwhelming reliance on private donor funds, it was placed under unprecedented strain.
“The community remains highly vigilant, and co-ordinated leadership continues to be delivered by the South African Jewish Board of Deputies, the office of the chief rabbi, and the Chevrah Kadisha, together with other organisations and in partnership with Jewish experts,” they write in their conclusion. “Some cracks, however, are already beginning to show. The extent to which it will be possible to retain the strength and co-ordination of these responses as the pandemic’s severe effects persist remains to be seen.”
They researched their subject by collecting data from all issues of South African Jewish publications during the period under study (March to October 2020). This included the SA Jewish Report, the Cape Jewish Chronicle, Jewish Life, and Jewish Affairs, as well as websites, social media, and other public communications of major communal institutions, the office of the chief rabbi, and Jewish-led relief initiatives and organisations. “The analysis of the data took two months, after which we wrote up the article itself,” says the younger Gilbert.
The SA Jewish Report was one of their prime resources, “since it provided granular detail of what was happening on a weekly basis, both events and ongoing discussions and debates. The SA Jewish Report webinars were also key as they were helping to provide support and access to information that the community needed,” she says.
Asked how they think the South African Jewish community will emerge from the pandemic, they say, “The conclusion [of the paper] is a paradoxical one. On the one hand, the article emphasises the robustness of the community’s infrastructure and its considerable resources, which have allowed it to mount an impressive response to the pandemic.
“On the other hand, the enormous challenges posed by the pandemic have also heightened existing feelings of precariousness and vulnerability within the community. The economic future of largely self-funded Jewish communal organisations is uncertain, emigration is ongoing and possibly increasing, and the self-employed (among whom Jews are strongly represented) have been hard-hit,” according to the elder Gilbert.
Asked if they will conduct research on the South African Jewish community in future, the younger Gilbert says, “My historical research on the South African Jewish community is ongoing. I’m working on a study of German Jews who came to South Africa in the 1930s, as well as a special journal issue on South African Jews co-edited with Professor Adam Mendelsohn. In October-November 2021, I’ll be teaching a six-part online course on Jews in South Africa for the Sir Martin Gilbert Learning Centre. Everyone is welcome.”
- The academic paper can be accessed by searching “South African Jewish Responses to COVID-19” on Google.
- The Sir Martin Gilbert Learning Centre course can be accessed by looking at the “What’s On” tab on www.sirmartingilbertlearningcentre.org